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TOWER 
LONDON 

iff 

CANON BENHAM,D.D.,F.S.A, 



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WXXM$ etj pfatft effou 




THE TOWER OF LONDON. 

a .MS 1 , o/ M Poems of Charles, Duke of Orleans. 
British Museum, 1 6 F. II. 



THE 
TOWER OF LONDON 



By 
WILLIAM BENHAM, D.D., F.S.A 

Rector of St. Edmund the King, Lombard Street, 
and Honorary Canon of Canterbury 




LONDON 

SEELEY AND CO. LIMITED, GREAT RUSSELL STREET 

NEW YORK: E. P. BUTTON & CO 

1906 



Ho 

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

SIR GEORGE BRYAN MILMAN, K.C.B. 

MAJOR OF THE TOWER, 

THE FOLLOWING ACCOUNT OF THE NOBLE FORTRESS, 
OF WHICH HE IS SO EARNEST AND ENTHUSIASTIC A GUARDIAN, 

is DeDtcatefc 

IN TOKEN OF DEEP RESPECT FOR HIS NAME AND WORK, 

AS WELL AS IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

OF THE HELP WHICH HE HAS GIVEN ME 

IN THIS LABOUR OF LOVE. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

CHAPTER I. 



EARLY HISTORY . 



CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BUILDINGS . . . 13 

CHAPTER III. 
IN THE DAYS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS . . 24 

CHAPTER IV. 

IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS . . . 3& 

CHAPTER V. 

THE TUDOR QUEENS ....... 52 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE STUARTS ........ 68 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE HOUSE OF HANOVER . . . . . .92 






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

PRINTED IN COLOURS FROM ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS 

THE TOWER OF LONDON. From a MS. of the Poems of Charles, Duke of Orleans. 

(British Museum, 16 F. ii.) Frontispiece 

ASSAULT ON A FORTRESS. From a MS. of Boccaccio de Casibus Virorum et Fceminarum 

Illustrium. (British Museum, 35321) 26 

ARTILLERY OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. From a MS. of the Chronicles of England. 

(British Museum, 14 E. iv.) 34 

A TOURNAMENT. From a MS. of the Romance of the Sire Jehan de Saintre. (British 

Museum, Nero D. ix.) .......... 42 

OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 

1. SOUTH AISLE OF ST. JOHN'S CHAPEL. From a Drawing by J. Wykeham Archer. 

(British Museum) 8 

2. BUILDING A GATEWAY. From a MS. of Le Tresor des Histoires. (British Mu- 

seum, Aug. A. v.) 8 

3. MEN-AT-ARMS CROSSING A DRAWBRIDGE. From a MS. of Les Chroniques d'Angle- 

terre. (British Museum, 14 E. iv.) .8 

4. STAIRCASE OF THE WHITE TOWER. From a Drawing by J. Wykeham Archer. 

(British Museum) .......... 8 

5. INDIAN ELEPHANT AND RHINOCEROS BROUGHT OVER IN 1686. From a Mezzotint 

by P. Vander Bgrge. (Gardner Collection) ...... 8 

6. LIONS' DENS IN THE TOWER. From a Drawing made in 1779. (Gardner Collec- 

tion) ............. 8 

7. THE TOWER, SHOWING THE EAST OUTER BALLIUM. From a Drawing by H. Hodge. 

(Gardner Collection) 16 

8. THE SALT TOWER, AND PART OF THE ANCIENT BALLIUM. From a Drawing by 

J. Wykeham Archer. (British Museum) 16 

9. THE PRISONERS' WALK. From a Drawing by C. J. Richardson. (Gardner Collec- 

tion) 16 

10. THE WAKEFIELD TOWER. From a Drawing by C. Tomkins. (British Museum) 16 

11. TRAITORS' GATE, FROM WITHOUT. From a Drawing by C. Tomkins. (Gardner 

Collection) 16 

12. TRAITORS' GATE, FROM WITHIN. From an old Engraving 16 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

13. BANQUET GIVEN BY RICHARD II. From a MS. of the Chronicles of England. 

(British Museum, 14 E. iv.) 24 

14. AN ACT OF ARMS BEFORE THE KING AND QUEEN. From a MS. of the Romance of 

Sire Jehan de Saintre. (British Museum, Nero D. ix.) .... 24 

15. GATEWAY OF THE BLOODY TOWER. From an Engraving by F. Nash, 1821 . . 24 

16. QUEEN IN A HORSE LITTER, ATTENDED BY HER LADIES ON HORSEBACK. From a MS. 

of Froissarfs Chronicles. (British Museum, 1 8 E. ii.) .... 24 

17. VAULTED ROOM IN THE CRYPT OF THE WHITE TOWER, IN WHICH THE RACK STOOD. 

From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection ...... 40 

1 8. A CELL IN THE BLOODY TOWER. From a Drawing by J. Wykeham Archer. 

(British Museum) . . .40 

19. THE PRIVY COUNCIL CHAMBER IN THE LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a Drawing 

by P. Justyne. (Gardner Collection) . , . . . . . .40 

20. A ROOM IN THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER, WITH PRISONERS' INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS 40 

21. THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER AND ST. PETER'S CHAPEL. From a Drawing by P. Jus- 

tyne. (Gardner Collection) . ........ 40 

22. THE LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a Drawing by C. J. Richardson. (Gard- 

ner Collection) . -4 

23. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHARINE, LOOKING WEST. From an Engrav- 

ing by J. Carter . . . . . . . . . .40 

24. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHARINE, LOOKING EAST. From an Engrav- 

ing by B. 1. Pouncey .......... 40 

25. THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD. From the Engraving by W. Hollar 80 

26. THE SEVEN BISHOPS TAKEN TO THE TOWER. From a Dutch Etching of the time. 

(Gardner Collection) .......... 80 

27. THE SOUTH VIEW OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. By Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, 

1737 . . ... .80 

28. THE TOWER AND OLD LONDON BRIDGE. From an Engraving after J. Maurer, 

1746. (Gardner Collection) .80 

29. THE MOAT. From an Engraving after J. Maurer, 1753. (Gardner Collection) 96 

30. THE TOWER AND THE MINT, FROM TOWER HILL. From a Drawing by T. S. 

Boys, 1842 96 

31. THE TOWER FROM THE THAMES. After E. Duncan 96 

32. THE CITY BARGES AT THE TOWER STAIRS. From a Drawing on stone by W. Parrott. 

(Gardner Collection) . . . . . . '. . . . 96 

PLAN OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. From a Drawing made between 1681 and 1689 104 

The numerous subjects drawn from the collection formed by the late Mr. J. E. Gardner 
are re-produced by kind -permission of Mr. E. T. Gardner. The skill of Miss E. A. Ibbs has 
contributed to the -production of the illustrations in colour. 



THE TOWER OF LONDON 



CHAPTER I 

EARLY HISTORY 

Ancient London Its Port and Trade The Tower its Safeguard Invasion by 
Julius Caesar The Roman Province of Britain Roman Wall and Tower The 
Roman Abandonment Saxon Invasion London the East Saxon Capital Danish 
Invasions Desertion of London Its Restoration by Alfred The Norman 
Conquest Bishop Gundulf , the Conqueror's Architect of the White Tower It 
becomes a Royal Palace for the East as Westminster for the West The Royal 
Menagerie in the Tower Great Additions made by Henry III His unpopu- 
larity The Civil War How the Tower became a State Prison Additions 
made by Edward I Quarrels of Edward II with his Barons His Occupation 
of the Tower His Flight Murder of Bishop Stapledon Murder of the King 
Residence of Edward III in the Tower, first as his Mother's Prisoner, then inde- 
pendent Execution of Mortimer The Beginning of the Hundred-Tears' 1 War 
Strange use made of the Tower in the days of preparation Imprisonment of 
illustrious French Captives, the Comte d'Eu, King "John of France, Charles of 
Blois Also of King David Bruce of Scotland Peace of Bretigny The Mint 
St. Katharine's Hospital. 

THE Tower of London is the most interesting fortress in Great 
Britain ; it has a history equalled in interest by few fortresses in the 
world. The Acropolis at Athens and the Capitol of Rome are far more 
ancient, but they are fortresses no longer. The only rival in this respect 
that occurs to me is the massive tower at the Western Gate of Jerusalem. 
It was probably built by King David, and enlarged by Herod ; and it is a 
military castle at this day. So is our Tower, and it was built for that use. 

The Port of London held a high position from the beginning of 
the history of Western Europe. Before the first Roman invasion of 
Britain there was a City of London, carrying on trade not only with the 
inland towns, but with the Continent. It was, as it is, a splendid 
position, and on the site of the present Tower the Britons had a fortress 



2 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

to protect it. Fifty-four years before the Christian era Julius Caesar led 
the first Roman invasion of this country, but he was only here three 
weeks, and it is very doubtful whether he ever came to London. He 
makes no mention of it in his Commentaries. We may therefore treat 
the story that he built the Tower as a myth, though Shakespeare does 
take it for granted (Richard II, act v, sc. i). The Roman Conquest of 
our island was not achieved until nearly a century later ; from which 
time, until the latter half of the fifth century, Britain was a Roman 
Province. The conquerors made London their chief city in Southern 
Britain, built the Roman wall, of which many portions still exist, 
and renewed the British fortress which held its commanding posi- 
tion as the safeguard of the city. On the south side of the great 
keep is a fragment which was laid bare some years ago, when some 
buildings were pulled down, and that fragment is certainly Roman. It 
is part of the Arx Palatina constructed during their domination. They 
abandoned the island at length, and after a brief interval came the 
invasion of our Teutonic forefathers, and London thus became the 
capital of the Kingdom of the East Saxons. 

But it was now anything but a flourishing city. The Danish 
invasions for a while destroyed its prosperity, and as Sir Walter Besant 
holds, caused the greater part of the population to flee. It was King 
Alfred who restored London, repaired the broken walls, and brought 
back the trade. " There were great heroes before Agamemnon," the poet 
tells us, "but they found no chronicler to recount their feats." And in 
like manner, one may say, the Tower had, no doubt, passages of historic 
interest before the Norman Conquest, which have not come down to 
us. It is barely mentioned in the Saxon chronicles. A few Saxon 
remains are noted by antiquaries. But at the Norman Conquest the 
continuous and most striking history begins, and continues unbroken. 
As we look upon it to-day, spite of all the mighty changes which Time 
has wrought, not only in the surroundings, but in the building itself, 
the great square keep is the most conspicuous object, and it was built 
by William the Conqueror. He brought, on the recommendation of 
Lanfranc, from the monastery of Bee a Benedictine monk named 
Gundulf, and made him Bishop of Rochester. He had travelled not 
only over many parts of Europe, but in the East, and was familiar with 



EARLY HISTORT 3 

the beauties of Saracenic art, which he made subservient to the decora- 
tion of his monastery, and now brought into use in his new See. He 
rebuilt Rochester Cathedral, and the noble castle beside it has also been 
ascribed to him, but this seems to be a mistake. And then the great 
King set him to work on the London fortress ; and he built the White 
Tower, as we call it, as well as St. Peter's Church and the old Barbican, 
the present Jewel House. " I find," writes Stow, " in a fair register 
book, containing the acts of the bishops of Rochester, set down by 
Edmund of Hadenham, that William I, surnamed Conqueror, built the 
Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square tower there, about 
the year of Christ 1078, appointing Gundulf, then Bishop of Rochester, 
to be principal surveyor and overseer of that work." Gundulf was 
the greatest builder of his time ; several still existent Norman towers 
in Kent are almost certainly his j 1 but he was also most earnest in the 
discharge of his episcopal duties, and both Lanfranc and Anselm 
entrusted much spiritual work to him. Even the rough and brutal 
Rufus, as well as his brother Henry I, treated him with marked respect. 
He died in 1108 at the age of eighty-four. The massive Ballium wall, 
varying from thirty to forty feet in height, was probably also his work. 

Henry I was the earliest King apparently to use the Tower as a State 
prison. He shut up Ralph Flambard, Bishop of Durham, in the White 
Tower on the charge of illegally raising funds to build the very fortress. 
Probably the imprisonment was a sop to public opinion, for the Bishop 
was hated for his exactions. He escaped, however ; got possession of 
a rope which had been hidden in a wine cask, invited his keepers to 
supper and made them drunk ; then fastening the rope to a window bar he 
let himself down. A swift horse which some friends had provided for 
him carried him to the coast, and he went over to Normandy, where 
he was cordially received by Duke Robert. But after the battle of 
Tenchebrai had destroyed all the hopes of the latter, King Henry 
welcomed the overtures which Flambard made to him, and restored 
him to his see at Durham, where he afterwards achieved his beautiful 
architectural works. 

The Tower was from that time onwards a Royal Palace, as 

1 The fine old keep at Mailing, in Kent, (now like Rochester only a shell) is the work 
of Gundulf. 



4 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

was Westminster in the West. We catch incidents of residence 
in two or three reigns, but they are few. It is noted by one 
chronicler that during the contest between Stephen and Matilda, 
Stephen broke through the older custom and kept the Pentecost festival 
in the Tower instead of at Westminster. One fact comes out clear 
enough. Some of the Norman Kings kept wild beasts ; Henry I had 
some lions and leopards at his palace at Woodstock. Frederick II of 
Germany sent three leopards as a present to Henry III, and they were 
placed in the Tower, where were already some lions, an elephant, and 
a bear, probably other beasts as well. There is an old account of the 
arrival of an elephant at Dover, and the amazement of the people as 
it was led up to London. Amid all its vicissitudes the Tower re- 
mained a royal menagerie until 1834. The Sheriff of London was 
ordered in 1252 to pay fourpence a day for the keep of the bear, 
as well as to provide a muzzle and chain for him when he was set to 
catch fish in the Thames. All through the Plantagenet days the beasts 
had food provided at the cost of 6d. a day. Their keeper was a Court 
official, styled " The Master of the King's bears and apes." The bears 
dwelt in a circular pit, like that in the main street of Berne to-day. It 
was situated where the ticket office and refreshment rooms are now. 
In the days of James I the bears were baited for the brutal amusement 
of the privileged. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth a German tourist 
named Hentzner saw here " a great variety of creatures, viz. three 
lionesses, one lion of great size called Edward VI, from his having been 
born in that reign, a tiger, a lynx, a wolf excessively old, a porcupine, 
and an eagle. All these creatures are kept in a remote place, fitted up 
for the purpose with wooden lattices at the Queen's expense." All 
through our literature there are references from time to time to the 
Tower menagerie. The " Lion Gate " was so called from its proximity 
to this. 

When Richard I went on Crusade, he left the Tower in charge of 
his Chancellor, Longchamp, Bishop of Ely. John, on usurping the 
kingdom, besieged the Tower, which Longchamp abandoned to him, 
and he committed it to the care of the Archbishop of Rouen, who held 
it till Richard's return. When John's kingdom was invaded by the 
French Dauphin, Louis, at the invitation of the rebellious barons, the 



EARLY H1STORT 5 

Tower was handed over to him, but he does not seem to have resided 
there. 

The next important builder after William the Conqueror was 
Henry III. A good deal of English fortification work is to be attributed 
to him. His master mason at the Tower was Adam of Lambourne, 
but the King himself may be called his own clerk of the works. He 
built the outer wall facing the ditch which had been dug in Norman 
days, and of course supplied with water from the Thames. It will be 
remembered that this King was the builder of the greater portion of 
Westminster Abbey ; whatever his defects as a ruler, he was a man of 
learning and taste, and he decorated the Norman chapel in the White 
Tower with beautiful frescoes and stained glass, and gave bells to St. 
Peter's Church on Tower Green. The Lantern Tower, on the new 
wall, he chose for his bedroom, and built a tiny chapel in it for his own 
devotions, which was so used by his successors until the tragedy of a 
king murdered before the altar destroyed the sanctity. Traitors' Gate, 
also, was his work, the great entrance from the river side, and a very 
noble piece of engineering ; how it got its name we shall see abundantly 
hereafter. A yet more important work of his, and for a while most 
unpopular, was the Wharf : the strip of bank alongside the river like 
the Thames Embankment of our own day. Adam of Lambourne was 
the engineer also of this remarkable work. Piles of timber were driven 
into the mud, and rubble thrown in between them, and then the 
whole mass was faced with a barrier of stone. At the beginning of the 
work the high tide washed it down, and carried away completely a 
tower which he was constructing to guard it. The citizens sent a 
remonstrance, not only against the expense, but against the harm which, 
they considered it would cause to trade navigation, but the King per- 
sisted and ordered Adam to make his foundations stronger. A cry was 
even got up that the ghost of St. Thomas of Canterbury had appeared 
to denounce the work. But the King's wisdom was so far justified by 
the result, that there to-day is the Wharf, and its foundations are firm 
as ever. 

I have told in the story of Old St. Paul's how his Queen, Eleanor 
of Savoy, had much to do with King Henry's unpopularity. She was 
beautiful to look upon, and highly accomplished, a patron of the arts,. 



6 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

and the bringer of musical excellence, both of voice and instrument, 
from her native land of Provence. But she was greedy of money, proud, 
arrogant and vindictive, and always bent on enriching her kindred. 
Her uncle, Boniface of Savoy, whom she made Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, was detested by the clergy, especially by the monks, for his 
insatiable and unblushing avarice. Her husband loved the Tower as 
a place of residence, but when one day she started forth in her barge 
for Westminster she was received with curses and cries of " Drown 
the witch," and had to hasten back in terror and take refuge once more 
within the Tower walls. Her son, Edward, I never forgave the Lon- 
doners for so insulting his mother, and not long after found an oppor- 
tunity of revenging it. At the Battle of Lewes he defeated a regiment 
of London citizens fighting on the side of the Barons, and pursued them 
far out of the field, slaughtering some 2,000 of them. But his leaving his 
father to look after himself had much to do with his losing the battle. 
The war between King Henry and the Barons came to an end with 
the defeat and death of Montfort at Evesham in 1264. The Barons 
had held the Tower until then, but the King now resumed authority 
over it, and increased its fortifications. He first made the famous 
Hugh de Burgh, Earl of Kent, Constable, but afterwards replaced him 
by Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester. Before long the peace of 
the country was again disturbed by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, 
who having obtained possession of the city of London denounced the 
Papal Legate Otho for residing in the Tower ; it was " a post," he said, 
" not to be trusted in the hands of a foreigner, much less of an ecclesi- 
astic." The Legate, in defiance, went to St. Paul's, and under pretence 
of preaching in favour of the Crusade, broke forth into fierce invectives 
against the earl, who was present. The preacher had some difficulty in 
making his way back to the Tower, which was besieged by de Clare ; but 
he held it successfully until the siege was raised by the royal army. 

One notable prisoner of this reign was Griffin, son of Llewelyn, 
Prince of Wales, who was caught and detained in the Tower as a hostage 
in 1244. He attempted to escape as Flambard had done, making a 
rope of his bedclothes. But he was very fat, it broke, and he was killed. 
His nephew Llewelyn was the chieftain who afterwards gave so much 
trouble to Edward I. 



EARLY HISTORT 7 

Prince Edward went away to the Holy Land, and during his 
absence his father, Henry III, died. The custody of the Tower was 
committed to the Archbishop of York till his return to England, 
when he completed the works in the fortress which his father 
had begun, and erected some additional fortifications on the western 
side. Stow quotes a record of his in which he commands the Treasurer 
and Chamberlain of the Exchequer " to deliver unto Miles of Andwarp 
[Antwerp] 200 marks towards the worke of the ditch, then new made 
about the bulwarke, now called the Lion Tower." Then, says Bayley, 
" may be regarded as the last additions of any importance that were 
ever made to the fortress." During Edward's active and powerful 
reign the Tower was chiefly appropriated to the use of a State prison. 
Of the multitudes of Jews who were apprehended in 1 278, on the charge 
of clipping and adulterating the coin of the realm, no less than 600 
were confined at once in the Tower, and the 'conquest of Wales and the 
attempt to conquer Scotland both provided a succession of illustrious 
prisoners, who lost their liberty in an unequal struggle for their country's 
freedom. It was in 1296 that Edward began his war for the conquest 
of Scotland. The battle of Falkirk in 1298 scattered the whole Scottish 
army, but the subjugation was not complete, for the English had to 
retire for want of provisions, but the leaders of the Scottish army, the 
Earls of Athol, Menteith and Ross, with their poor King Baliol and his 
son Edward, and other Scottish leaders, were brought to the Tower, 
as in 1305 was William Wallace. The latter was executed in Smith- 
field, August 25, 1305. His was one of the first trials in Westminster 
Hall. 

Edward II, like his father, showed no partiality for the Tower as 
a residence, but occasionally retired to it as a place of safety. In 1322 
his eldest daughter was born here, and was called in consequence 
" Joan of the Tower," as his youngest son was called John of Eltham 
from his birthplace. During that miserable reign the conspiracies 
raised by the barons, first against Piers de Gaveston, and afterwards 
against the Despensers, the successive favourites of the unhappy King, 
caused the issuing of frequent orders for putting the Tower in a state 
of defence. In 1312 engines were constructed, and other precautions 
taken to make it impregnable, for the barons were in open rebellion. 



8 'THE TOWER OF LONDON 

In 1324, Lord Mortimer being confined in the Tower, and more rebel 
barons in other fortresses, a plot was laid to set them at liberty simul- 
taneously. This failed, but Mortimer contrived to escape by inviting 
the governor of the Tower, Sir Samuel Segrave, with other officers of 
the fortress, to a banquet and making them drunk. Though every 
exertion was made to recapture him he got away to France, where in 
conjunction with the Queen, Isabella, he brought about the unnatural 
conspiracy which deprived the wretched King of his throne and his 
life. Segrave was removed from his post and imprisoned, and the 
custody of the Tower was committed to Walter Stapledon, Bishop of 
Exeter a terrible trust, as was soon proved. For the rebellion was 
already assuming the most formidable shape. In the early part of 
1326 the Queen and her accomplice Mortimer landed in Suffolk. The 
King retired to the newly-fortified Tower, summoned the Mayor, 
Sheriffs and Aldermen of the city to his presence-chamber, and gave 
his commands for the preservation of the tranquillity of the capital. 
He further issued a proclamation offering a reward for Mortimer's 
head. But the rebels came on, in the full confidence of victory. The 
King in vain endeavoured to rouse the Londoners in his defence; and 
so on October 2 he left the Tower in charge of Bishop Stapledon, 
his young son John of Eltham being there also, and hastened away 
to the West of England, in hopes of finding greater loyalty there. 
He had hardly left London when the rebel spirit of its inhabitants 
broke out in fury; they seized the bishop in charge, dragged him into 
Cheapside, and beheaded him with some other officers, and appointed 
officers of their own to rule in the name of John of Eltham. Stapledon 
was a man not only of rectitude of character, but a munificent patron 
of learning. Exeter College, Oxford, owes its foundation to him, and 
much of the beauty of Exeter Cathedral is his work. He was first 
buried in the Church of St. Clement Danes, but afterwards removed to 
his Cathedral, where a magnificent monument covers him. The 
" she-wolf " queen and her paramour, after the King's murder at 
Berkeley Castle, ruled for a while in the name of the young King 
Edward III, and kept him secluded in the Tower as a mere puppet. 
But they misjudged their power ; he broke through their control, 
and threw himself on the nation ; Mortimer was arrested at Nottingham 




I. SOUTH AISLE OF ST. JOHN'S CHAPEL. From a drawing by J. Wykeham Archer, 1852. 

British Museum. 




2. BUILDING A GATEWAY. From a MS. of Le Trcsor da Histoires, British Museum, Aug. A. v. 




3. MEN-AT-ARMS CROSSING A DRAWBRIDGE. From a MS. oj Les Chroniques d'Angleterre, 

British Museum, 14 iv. 




4. STAIRCASE OF THE WHITE TOWER. From a a'rawing by /. Wykeliam Archer, 1851. British 




5. INDIAN ELEPHANT AND RHINOCEROS BROUGHT OVER IN 1686. From a mezzotint by P. Vander Surg 

Gardner Collection. 




6. LIONS' DENS IN THE TOWER. From a drawing made in \Y]<). Gardner Collection. 



EARLY HISTORT 9 

and brought to the Tower, whence on November 29 he was carried to 
" Tyburn Elms," hanged, drawn, and quartered treated, in fact, as 
he had treated the Despensers. 

The great but unrighteous claim of Edward III to the crown of 
France, resulting in the " hundred years' war " concerns us here thus 
far, that he resided in the Tower whilst he was making his preparations 
to enforce his claim ; and on his departure placed a strong garrison in 
it, and furnished it as a fit and secure residence for his son, Prince 
Edward, whom he appointed regent in his absence. In 1341 he secretly 
returned to England, landed at the Tower at midnight on November 30, 
accompanied by the Earl of Northampton, Sir Walter Manny, and 
other great men, and finding the fortress badly guarded, imprisoned the 
governor and officers and treated them with exemplary rigour. He 
took up his residence in the Tower, discharged the Lord Treasurer and 
the Lord Chancellor, Robert Bishop of Chichester, and delivered the 
great seal to Robert Bourchier, who afterwards fought at Crecy. All 
these strong measures were in consequence of the disorders and abuses 
which he found. From this time till 1 342 King Edward kept his Court 
here, and here, during that period, his Queen Philippa gave birth to 
a princess who was named Blanche, but who died in infancy and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

That great war wrought momentous changes in the course of 
English history, which will indirectly concern us in these pages. It 
also changed very decidedly and materially the position and the uses 
of the Tower, which from this time onwards became peculiarly cele- 
brated as the prison of illustrious captives. On July 27, 1346, King 
Edward captured Caen, one of the richest and most powerful towns in 
Normandy, and took prisoner the Constable of France, the Count 
d'Eu, the Count of Tankerville, and sent them with 300 of the most 
opulent citizens as prisoners to the Tower of London. He then 
marched along Northern France, on August 26 won the battle of 
Crecy, and on September 3 laid siege to Calais, a very strong town, 
which had done much harm to the English and Flemings by piracies. 
That memorable siege lasted just eleven months, and we all remember 
the pretty story of the self-devotion of Eustace de Saint Pierre and the 
averting of the King's vengeance by the intercession of Queen Philippa. 



io THE TOWER OF LONDON 

While this siege was going on King Philip of France persuaded 
the King of Scotland, David Bruce, to invade England, and so to revenge 
past injuries, and secure future independence. He came with 50,000 
men, laid waste all the border country, and drew nigh to Durham. 
But here he was met by a small body of English, led by Lord Percy, 
and entirely defeated. This was the battle of Neville's Cross, fought 
on October 17, 1346. King David was taken prisoner, as were the 
Earls of Fife and Monteith and several more Scottish chiefs. They 
were all brought to London to the amazing joy and delight of the citi- 
zens. The captive King was mounted on a high black courser ; the 
City Guilds, clad in their respective liveries, made a great escort for 
him, through street after street, until he was committed to the custody 
of Sir John D'Arcy, the Constable of the Tower, on January 2, 1347. 
The same year the roll of illustrious captives was increased by the 
famous Charles of Blois, one of the competitors for the Duchy of 
Brittany, and, on the surrender of Calais, by its valiant governor, John 
of Vienne, and twelve of his comrades. Bruce continued in captivity 
here for eleven years. 

In 1358 the great fortress received a yet more illustrious prisoner. 
King John of France and his son Philip were taken captive by Edward 
the Black Prince at the battle of Poitiers, and brought to London. At 
first they were lodged in the Duke of Lancaster's palace in the Savoy, 
then at Windsor, and apparently had a fine time with hawking and 
hunting and good cheer. Next year when King Edward returned to 
France " he made all the lordes of France, such as were prisoners, to be 
put into dyvers places and strange castelles, to be the more sure of them, 
and the Frenche Kynge was set in the Towre of London, and his yonge 
sonne with hym, and moche of hys pleasure and sport restrayned ; for 
he was then straytlyer kept than he was before." They had not a bad 
time of it, however, here apparently. The Scottish King had just 
been liberated, but there were many French nobles to make up a court 
for him. Next year the treaty of Bretigny restored him to his country. 

Coming operations had been carried on in the Tower here 
ever since the Norman Conquest, if not long before. It was not, 
however, the only place. In the reign of Charles I there seem 



EARLY HISTORT n 

to have been fifteen mints, but an edict of the reign of Edward 
III enacted that all moneys, wherever coined, should be made 
uniform with those of the Tower. After the Restoration, small 
rolling-mills were set up in the Tower, driven by horse and water 
power, and a great improvement was hereby effected milled instead 
of hammered coins. The workshops were between the inner and 
outer walls, and the road which runs between St. Thomas's Tower 
and the Bloody Tower was formerly called Mint Street. In 1696 an 
Act was passed, calling in the old hammered coinage, to be melted 
down in a furnace at Westminster, and sent in ingots to the Tower, 
to reappear in milled form. Sir Isaac Newton, Master of the Mint, 
made many more improvements. In 1810 the Mint was removed 
outside to Little Tower Hill, where it is at this day. 

Though it did not belong to the Tower, nor was within its limits, 
the Royal Hospital of St. Katharine's by the Tower cannot be passed 
over without mention. It was founded in 1148 by Matilda, wife of 
King Stephen, for the repose of her two children, for the maintenance 
of a master and several poor brothers and sisters. Eleanor, Henry Ill's 
widow, augmented it in 1273, " for a master, three brethren, chaplains, 
three sisters, ten bedeswomen, and six poor scholars." The foundation 
was placed under the especial patronage and jurisdiction of the Queen 
Consorts of England, and, with all changes, has so remained to the 
present day. The office of Master is the only preferment in the gift of 
the Queen Consort or Queen Dowager. Queen Philippa, Edward Ill's 
wife, gave houses in Kent and Herts for its additional support. Thomas 
de Bekington, Master in 1445, afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
obtained a charter of privileges, by which the precincts of the hospital 
were decreed free of all jurisdiction, civil or religious, except that of the 
Lord Chancellor, and to help the funds an annual fair was to be held on 
Tower Hill, to last twenty-one days from the Feast of St. James. 

Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragon founded here a guild of St. 
Barbara, among the governors of which was Cardinal Wolsey. He did 
not suppress it with the other religious houses, in compliment to Anne 
Boleyn, whom he had lately married. 

The Church was in the Decorated style, very close to the Iron Gate 
of the Tower, properly St. Katharine's Gate. Stow, writing in 1598, 



12 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

describes it as " enclosed about and pestered with small tenements and 
homely cottages." When the royal assent was given to the making of 
St. Katharine's Docks in 1825, the hospital was removed to Regent's 
Park. There were some interesting monuments in the old church. 
The first President of the Royal Society, Lord Brouncker, was buried 
here, and Ducarel the Antiquary. The fine tombs of John Holland, 
Duke of Exeter, his duchess, and his sisters, were removed to the 
Regent's Park. The Duke, who died in 1447, was High Admiral of 
England and Ireland and Constable of the Tower. 



CHAPTER II 

GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BUILDINGS 

A Walk round, Tower Hill The Moat The Outward, Ballium The Legge and. 
Brass Mount Batteries Develin, Well, Cradle, and St. Thomas's Towers 
Traitors'* Gate The Inner Ward, its Shape Bell, Beauchamp, Devereux 
Towers on the West ; Flint, Bowyer, Brick, Martin, on the North ; Constable, 
Broad Arrow on the East ; Lanthorn, Wakefield and Bloody on the South The 
Great Keep, its Construction The Chapel Armoury Little Ease The 
Ancient Palace, now removed Church of St. Peter ad Vincula The King's 
House Officers of the Tower The Teomen of the Guard. 

HERE we may conveniently pause ; the building is substantially 
completed, the great keep, the two enclosures, the Inner and Outer 
Ballium. Subsequent changes are all within these, and we shall have 
occasion to notice them at later dates, but now that we have seen the for- 
tress completed, and used, partly as a Royal residence, partly as a State 
Prison, we will survey the whole in detail. And I ask attention to the 
Plan opposite p. 104, which will make each point clear. I propose, then, 
first to take a walk round the outside and start from the bottom of Tower 
Hill by the main entrance, where the visitors are busy buying their 
tickets of admission. The modern building where they are doing this 
is the site of the old Lion Tower. Facing us is the Middle Tower, 
the gateway which leads over the Moat into the fortress itself. But 
as I am keeping outside I pass this and ascend the hill. To-day the 
whole of the bank of the Moat on the western and northern side is laid 
out as a flower garden, and the many seats among the trees are well 
occupied with loungers, mostly poor, some asleep and some reading the 
newspaper. The Moat, which is as old as the Tower itself, was deep- 
ened by Bishop Longchamp while he held the place for Richard I, 
and again by Henry III, the water of course being supplied from the 
Thames, which flowed in at what we call Traitors' Gate. Its greatest 

13 



I4 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

width is about a hundred feet. It is said that bathing in it in the days 
of the Plantagenets was a capital offence, but some one suggests that 
this simply means that it was so unsanitary as to be likely to prove fatal. 
There can be no doubt that the water splashing upon the walls and 
bastions added greatly to the picturesqueness ; you see that in all the 
old pictures, but the changes of Time put aside its usefulness, and after 
eight centuries of its ebb and flow, the Duke of Wellington, when he 
was Constable, had it filled up to its present level and the communica- 
tion with the river cut off. So now we look down upon a smooth level, 
on the west side gravelled, a place for recreation, and sometimes also a 
drying-ground of the Tower laundry. On the other sides, when we 
get to them, we see great portions laid down for garden ground. On 
the other side of the Moat is the Outward Wall, built by Henry III. 
Surveying it from this western side we see first the Byward Tower, 
which, as a glance at the plan will show, is opposite the Middle Tower, 
and forms the land entrance into the fortress. On the opposite end of 
this western side is the " drum bastion," segment of a circle about 80 
feet diameter, called Leggis Mount Battery , probably after George Legge, 
Earl of Dartmouth, who had charge of it in the seventeenth century. 

Turning eastward, and surveying the north side, we observe that 
this is not, like the western, a straight line, but an obtuse angle, which 
is bounded on the east by the Brass Mount, probably so called because 
brass cannon were mounted on it. At the bend is the North Bastion, 
a modern erection containing three tiers of casements, each pierced for 
five guns. At the north-east we leave the side of the Moat, and 
passing up through the gardens emerge opposite the Mint into the open 
road, which leads over that wonderful achievement of modern engin- 
eering, the Tower Bridge. But as our present business is not with it, 
we go down a flight of steps into Little Tower Street, on a level with 
the Thames. The wall on the eastern side is quite straight ; and so 
we pass to the eastern end of the river front. This, as being the most 
exposed and also having the moat narrower, is fortified with five regular 
towers, the Develin, Well, Cradle, St. Thomas's and Byward Towers. 
The Develin (temp. Henry III) formerly led into the precincts of St. 
Katharine's. Till lately it was used as a powder magazine. The 
Cradle Tower is in front of what were the royal apartments, and was a 



GENERAL SURFET OF THE BUILDINGS 15 

gate specially for the convenience of royalty. There was in those days 
a portcullis, and a hoist or lift by which a boat could be lifted from the 
river to the level of the gateway. Hence the name " cradle," a mov- 
able bed. 

Next we come to St. Thomas's Tower, almost always called now 
Traitors' Gate, from its ancient function. It was the water-gate of 
the Tower, and commanded the communication between the Thames 
and the Moat. It is in fact a barbican, probably unique, placed astride 
upon the Moat, which was here about 40 feet broad, and perforated by 
a passage leading from the river. The original name was the Water- 
gate ; " Traitors' Gate " dates from the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Independently of its historical associations it is really a wonderful 
structure, a magnificent arch, 62 feet span, with no key-stone, the 
stones of the two rows of the arch fitted together with perfect accuracy. 
The state prisoners were brought down the river in the government 
barge, conveyed beneath this arch to the flight of steps, by which they 
ascended to the gateway of the Inner Ward. Of course, like the rest of 
the Moat, the bed is now dry and the river walled out, but there, under 
the arch, are still the massive folding trellised gates, as well as the steps, 
the latter partially renovated, no doubt, but unmistakably showing some 
of the old ones which so many feet have trod. We think of the men, 
not only brought in as prisoners, but carried forth again to Westminster 
Hall for trial, and brought back so often under sentence of death, with 
the edge of the axe turned towards them. Not the Roman Capitol, 
nor the Romer of Frankfurt, nor the Bridge of Sighs at Venice can 
count such a list of names as Traitors' Gate. St. Thomas's Tower was 
built by Henry III, and named by him after St. Thomas of Canterbury. 
There is an old piscina showing that it once contained a chapel. Passing 
it we come along the Wharf to our starting-point, the Middle Tower, 
and so have completed the walk round the outside. 

And now starting from the Middle Tower and crossing a stone 
bridge over the Moat, which replaces a wooden drawbridge which 
gave entrance of old, but has been withdrawn now that there is no 
longer need of it, we are in the Inner Ward, and I shall do with this as 
with the Outer, and first walk round it on the outside. It is enclosed 
within a curtain wall, having twelve mural towers and a gatehouse. Its 



16 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

longest side faces the river, the east and west sides incline inwards, so 
that the north face is narrower than the base, and like the corresponding 
wall in the outer ballium, is broken by an obtuse angle, having like that 
a central salient. When we get to the inside we shall find that this 
Inner Ward is on a higher level than the Outer, some 15 or 20 feet. 
This may be partially owing to the earth excavated by Longchamp 
when the ditch was made being thrown up here. There is a clear 
passage between the Inner and Outer Ward, to which the ordinary 
visitor is not admitted. It is known as " The Casemates." We first, 
by the courtesy of the authorities, walk round this and note the semi- 
circles of the towers : on the west side, the Bell, Beauchamp and 
Devereux ; on the north, Flint, Bowyer, Brick, Martin ; on the east, 
Constable, Broad Arrow, Salt ; on the south, Lanthorn, Wakefield, 
Bloody. Most of these will be noticed in turn. This passage round, 
which is now quite open, was formerly filled up with houses, warders' 
residences and storehouses, which were removed in 1867. There are 
doorways along it into the outer wall, in which are lodgings for officials 
and chambers for stores. And now we make a yet further move, 
and pass within the wall, and so are in the heart of the Tower itself 
The original entrance was through the Bloody Tower ; it is so now for 
one division of visitors, but the Wakefield is made another entrance. 
Within, naturally, the prominent object in view as in historical interest 
is the Keep, the great White Tower of William the Conqueror. It 
stands on sloping ground, so that the north side basement is 25 feet 
higher than the south ; quadrangular, 107 feet north and south by 
118 east and west. The two western angles are square; that on the 
north-east has a round stone turret ; the south wall terminates east- 
ward in a bold half-round bow, marking the apse of the chapel. This 
keep is 90 feet high, composed of three floors, or four stages. The base- 
ment is below ground on the north, and on the ground level on the south. 
The walls are from 12 to 15 feet thick. The internal area is divided 
by a wall 10 feet thick, which rises from bottom to top, and so makes a 
separate smaller western and larger eastern portion. This last is again 
subdivided into two by another wall running east and west. The vault 
or subcrypt of the chapel is known in Tower phrase as " Little Ease." 
We shall have it hereafter. On the first floor is the crypt and the upper 




N 2 







8. THE SALT TOWER, AND PART OF THE ANCIENT BALI.IUM. From a draiving by J. IVykeham Archer, 

1846. British Musettm. 




I! 




s 



ii. TRAITORS' GATE, FROM WITHOUT. From a drawing by C. Tomkins, 1801. Gardner Collection 





12. TRAITORS' GATE, FROM WITHIN. Front an old engraving. British Museum. 



GENERAL SURFET OF THE BUILDINGS 17 

storeroom. On the second floor is St. John's Chapel, nave and aisle, 
and the Lower Armoury ; on the third floor the chapel triforium 
and the Upper Armoury, the ancient Council Chamber, or " state 
floor." 

We can trace here the origins of our old Law Courts. From the first 
it was a recognized rule that the Inner Ballium was sacred to royalty, 
and the general world coming on business had to content itself with 
admission to the Outer Ballium. The great Council Chamber was 
especially the " King's Curia," the King's Bench, where his justices sat 
to supervise the proceedings of inferior courts, as well as to deal with 
criminal matters directly affecting the Crown. The Court of Common 
Pleas, suits between subject and subject, was held in the Hall Tower 
close to the Outer Ballium, to which there was an entrance into the 
Royal Palace. And here strict rules were kept, in order to keep the 
commonalty at a distance. There was a preliminary meeting at the 
Church of All Hallows Barking, to settle who were to be admitted for 
the pleadings. This last Court was removed to Westminster Hall by 
Magna Charta. 

The entrance into this wonderful building is by a well-stair at the 
south-west angle. The keep was restored on the outside by Sir C. 
Wren, who faced the windows with stone in the Italian style. The 
inside has been very little altered. The largest of the four turrets was 
the original Observatory of the great astronomer, Flamsteed. 

The Chapel, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, is a very rare, if not 
unique, example of such a large and complete apartment in a Norman 
keep. It is in plan a rectangle 40 feet by 3 1 feet, terminating eastward in a 
semicircular apse of its full breadth, making the total length 55 ft. 6 in. 
It is divided into a nave and aisles, a splendid example of Norman work, 
simple, complete. It was intended primarily, no doubt, for the devo- 
tions of the Conqueror and his descendants ; the church of St. Peter 
below was built for the use of the garrison. Though architecturally 
plain, it was probably painted and hung with tapestry. Henry III gave 
some stained glass. The only fireplace in the great keep is on this 
floor. 

The Armoury was begun' by Henry VIII, His original locality of the 
armour was Greenwich, and consequently there is little armour here older 



i8 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

than the fifteenth century. It used to be kept in a temporary gallery, 
removed in 1883, on the south side of the keep; it was then removed to 
the top floor, and within the last few years the floor below is also re- 
quired. I make no attempt to classify the armour here ; the subject 
has been fully treated in the Portfolio monographs, Nos, 33 and 38. 

South of the keep, between it and the ward wall facing the river, 
formerly stood the Royal Palace, which was removed at various times by 
James I and Cromwell to make room for storehouses. Some portions 
even remained until after the Restoration. The Castle Keep in the 
Middle Ages was the occasional residence of the lord, but he almost 
always had his ordinary lodging close by. In the plan will be 
observed " k. little storehouse in Cold Harbour " ; it was the old gate- 
way into the King's residence, and the Queen had her own rooms 
between the Salt and Lanthorn Towers. At " h. Mortarpiece Store- 
house " was the Great Hall where the King heard cases and received 
deputations. 

Of the twelve mural towers the Wakefield is the most ancient. It 
is also known as the Record Tower, the national records having been 
kept there until they were removed to their present home in Fetter 
Lane. In the survey of Queen Elizabeth it is the Hall Tower, from its 
proximity to the hall just mentioned. It is a large circular building; 
the lower part is probably the work of William Rufus. The upper 
storey consists of a fine handsome chamber, with a recess which it is said 
Henry VI used as his private chapel, fitting it with aumbry and piscina ; 
and tradition states that it was whilst he was praying here that he was 
murdered. The Wakefield Tower is now the receptacle of the King's 
Crown and all the other splendid articles of the English regalia. 

Bloody Tower was the original gatehouse of the Inner Ward. It 
stands opposite to Traitors' Gate, and also abuts against the Wakefield 
Tower, does not bulge out into semicircle as do the others, but its 
exterior face ranges with the curtain wall. All this indicates that its 
safeguarding was carefully thought of. Its original name was the 
Garden Tower, and it is so called in the survey of Henry VIII. This 
was owing to its being close to the Constable's garden, now the Parade. 
Its present name is given to it in the survey of 1597 ; popular pre- 
judice rather than Tower tradition attributes the change to the mur- 



GENERAL SURFET OF THE BUILDINGS 19 

der of Edward and his brother, but the word seems hardly appropriate 
to the smothering of the poor children. The chief warder showed me 
some hooks in the gateway. On these, he told me, heads were stuck 
after executions, and these he said were the origin of the name. 

The Bell Tower was so called from the alarm bell suspended from 
its summit. The bell now discharges the duty of summoning the gar- 
rison to St. Peter's Church. 

The Beauchamp or Cobham Tower is one of special interest owing 
to the number of memorials cut upon its walls by its distinguished 
prisoners. We shall have some of them hereafter. Its name is derived 
from Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who was imprisoned here 
towards the end of the fourteenth century. The Devereux was originally 
the Robert the Devil Tower. The name was altered when Robert 
Devereux, Earl of Essex, was confined in it in 1601. The Flint and 
Curtain Towers were rebuilt not many years ago. The Bowyer is so 
called because it was the workshop of the royal maker of bows. 

Martin's Tower became the Jewel House in 1641. The jewels were 
moved that year from the south side of the White Tower, because, as 
that was used for a powder magazine, it was feared they might be 
endangered. It was here that Colonel Blood made his audacious 
attempt in 1673, as we shall see. 

The others have nothing special which need detain us ; they were 
all at one time or other used as prisons, except the Lanthorn Tower 
which was the King's bedchamber and private room at the time when 
he had his palace here. It has been recently restored. It took its 
name from the light placed on the top for the benefit of vessels com- 
ing up the river. 

The Church of St. Peter ad Fincula, in the north-west corner of 
the Inner Ward, was in existence from Norman times. There is men- 
tion of it in the days of King John, but the present building is mostly 
of the Perpendicular period. It is devoid of ornament, but has a deep 
interest as having been the burial place of so many victims who perished 
on the scaffold almost close to it on the Parade or Tower Green, as well 
as on Tower Hill outside. Most of them however have been removed 
to other resting-places. Some years ago the remains of the victims of 
the '45 were found, and the lead coffin plates are now fastened on the 



20 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

wall. The chaplain is appointed by the Crown, but is under the 
jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. 

The King's House is the official designation of the Lieutenant's lodg- 
ging, on the south-west part of the Inner Ward. This also has many- 
interesting historical associations. In the Council Chamber, now 
occupied as a bedroom, the Commissioners appointed by James I ex- 
amined the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot. A long Latin inscrip- 
tion on the wall commemorates the circumstances. Here was im- 
prisoned Margaret, Countess of Lenox, grandmother of James I, for 
marrying her son, Lord Henry Darnley, to the Queen of Scots. 

It has been found desirable to state these details as the canvas on 
which the historical incidents which follow can be written in their due 
course. But this seems also the place to give some account of the 
officers of the Tower. 

When William the Conqueror had achieved his great work of build- 
ing the Tower, he showed his high sense of its importance by conferring 
the charge of it on one of his faithful followers, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
who had distinguished himself greatly at the Battle of Hastings. He 
was called the " Constable," sometimes " of the Tower," sometimes 
" of the sea " ; this last owing to the jurisdiction which he exercised 
over the ships that came up the river. There are constant cases, dis- 
persed through the records, how he allowed and restrained merchants 
to depart from the port, prevented forestalling, took security not to 
go to forbidden places, compelled those who brought fish to London 
for sale to take them to Queenhithe, and so on. 

He had various customs and profits. From every boat coming to 
London laden with rushes, such a quantity as could be held between a 
man's arms was to be laid for him on the Tower Wharf ; from every 
oyster boat " one maund " (hand-basket full) ; from every ship laden 
with wine, one flagon before and one from behind the mast ; swans 
coming under London Bridge towards or from the sea belonged to the 
Constable ; horses, cows, pigs, sheep falling from the bridge into the 
Thames were the Constable's if he could rescue them ; and for every 
foot of such animals feeding within the ditches of the Tower, he was 
entitled to one penny. Then there were tenements on Tower Hill of 
which the rents were his, as well as those for herbage growing on Tower 



GENERAL SUR7ET OF THE BUILDINGS 21 

Hill ; herring boats from Yarmouth paid him twelve pence. Then 
prisoners had to pay heavy fees a duke paid twenty pounds, an earl 
twenty marks, a knight a hundred shillings. And there was an annual 
fee of fifty to a hundred pounds, and allowances of wax, wine, and other 
necessaries for the use of the household. It is needless to add that though 
these particular privileges have gone, the Constable of the Tower has 
always been a very important personage, holding his appointment by 
Royal Letters Patent under the Great Seal. He has the honour of 
the privilege of audience of, and direct communication with the King. 
On his installation the keys are delivered to him by the Lord Chamber- 
lain. He, always a man, therefore, of high rank, appointed a Lieu- 
tenant, to whom he allowed 20 a year, with such savings as could be 
made in furniture and food. In the reign of Henry VIII, the Lieu- 
tenant, who had now become the actual prison warder, had a new 
house built for his accommodation, in a courtly quarter, under the 
Belfry. This is now " the King's House," the residence of the present 
Major of the Tower, General Milman, who is, ex officio, a Justice of the 
Peace for the Tower Liberties, and a Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower 
Hamlets. The Tower Commitment Book, containing the date of all 
prisoners as far back as 1666, is in his custody. By him the Yeoman. 
Warders are sworn in as special constables, their duties being confined 
to the limits of the Tower. They are described in the official regula- 
tions as " Honorary members of the King's Bodyguard of the Yeomen, 
of the Guard." They are selected from warrant officers and non- 
commissioned officers of the army, and are on the same footing as ser- 
jeant-majors of the army. The " Yeoman Gaoler " who carries the 
curious old axe (figured in the Tower trophy of arms) on state occasions 
is responsible for the general maintenance of order. The " Yeoman 
Porter " is chief warder ; has charge of the gates and drawbridges ; 
also has the care of the Warders' Uniforms. He asserts the right of the 
Tower authorities over Postern Row and George Street, by closing the 
iron bars across these thoroughfares on the first working day in August. 
Every night at 1 1 o'clock, when the Tower gates are locked, the Yeoman 
Porter applies five minutes beforehand to the serjeant of the guard at 
the Main Guard for the escort for the King's keys. The serjeant ac- 
quaints the officer that the escort is called for, who furnishes a serjeant 



22 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

and six men for this duty, at the same time placing his guard under 
arms. When the keys return, the sentry at the guard-room challenges 
" Halt ! who comes there ? " Yeoman Porter answers " The keys." 
" Whose keys ? " " King Edward's keys." Yeoman Porter places 
himself, with the escort, in front of the guard ; the officer of the guard 
gives the word, " Present arms ! " The Yeoman Porter then says in an 
audible voice, " God preserve King Edward ! " and the whole guard 
answer " Amen ! " The keys are then carried by the Yeoman Porter to 
the King's House. A similar escort is called for in the morning at the 
opening, but no ceremony takes place then. 

The Yeomen of the Guard were first appointed by Henry VII, and 
made their first public appearance at his coronation. Since then there 
has been no Royal Pageant in which they have not been conspicuous. 
The word " Yeoman " of itself is a puzzle. It evidently signified an 
officer of high grade ; we have " Yeomen of the Guard," " of the Black 
Rod," " of the Chamber," " of the Pantry," " of the Robes," " of the 
Crown," " of the Mouth." But the derivation of the word is quite 
uncertain. The Gentleman's Magazine says (vol. xxix.) that it is of 
military origin, like " esquire," and that as these were so called because 
they carried shields (ecu), so the yeomen were archers, who carried yew. 
But Johnson and Skeat both prefer ga (A.S. " village ") man. 
Another question is, why are they called " Beefeaters " ? a question not 
likely to be ever settled. When I was a child, my old rector, Arch- 
deacon Bayley, told me with much impressment that because one of 
their duties was to watch the royal beauffet, they were called " beauf- 
fetiers," and that it has got thus corrupted. And this is the derivation 
given to the first query in Notes and Queries (I. iii. 167). Skeat (Notes 
and Queries, V. vii. 64) treats this with the utmost contempt. He says 
it was a mere guess of Steevens's, that the yeomen didn't wait at table, 
and that the word means " an eater of beef," and by consequence " a 
jolly yeoman." There are very many discussions running through 
Notes and Queries, and it seems to me that Skeat holds his ground well. 

There are 100 yeomen. The costume is said to be that of the pri- 
vate soldier of Henry VIFs time. It will be remembered that he may 
be said to be the first monarch who had a standing army. The Naval 
and Military Gazette of 1876 has the following : 



GENERAL SURVEY OF THE BUILDINGS 23 

" The Yeomanry of the Guard were formed into a corps in 1485 
and first made their appearance at the coronation of Henry VII in 
white gaberdines, ornamented with the royal device, and caps sur- 
rounded by the roses of York and Lancaster. The King, who loved a 
joke, would sometimes dress himself jin the habit of his yeomen, and 
scour the country in search of adventures. On one occasion he paid a 
visit to the Abbot of Chertsey, who, ignorant of his guest and rank, but 
nevertheless hospitably inclined, placed him before a round of beef, 
which disappeared with marvellous rapidity. The worthy dignitary 
exclaimed that he would give a hundred marks for such an appetite. 
Shortly afterwards the churchman was arrested on the King's warrant, 
and imprisoned in Windsor Castle, where he was fed on bread and water. 
At the end of some days a baron of beef appeared, to which the abbot 
did justice, and lifting his eyes at the end of his meal, saw the yeoman 
before him, who claimed the hundred marks. ' Who art thou, Beef- 
eater ? ' exclaimed the priest. The King revealed himself, and took 
the hundred marks. But the Abbot profited by the joke, for he was 
not long after made Bishop of Bangor." 

Fuller tells the same story, but makes the King, with more prob- 
ability, not Henry VII, but VIII. 



CHAPTER III 

IN THE DAYS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 

Coronation of Richard II 'The Wat Tyler Rebellion Murder of Archbishop Simon 
of Canterbury The Rebellion Quelled Fresh Troubles raised by the Duke of 
Gloucester and quieted by Archbishop Courtenay Still Troubles Continue 
Execution of some Prominent Members of Parliament, and of Sir Simon Burley, 
the King's Tutor First Legal Execution on Tower Hill Richard's Wilfulness 
and Treachery His Dethronement, August 19, 1399 Accession of Henry IF 
Death and Burial of Richard II Cons-piracies against Henry IV Battle of 
Shrewsbury Prisoners shut up in the Tower Among them James of Scotland, 
" The King's Quhair " The Great War with France Charles, Duke of Orleans, 
a formidable rival ; his Imprisonment and Life in the Tower His Return to- 
France The Lollards Sir John Oldcastle His Plots and Death Death of 
Henry V Fall of the English Power in France Rival Nobles in England : Dukes 
of Bedford and Gloucester, Cardinal Beaufort, Earl of Warwick Marriage of 
Henry with Margaret of Anjou Public Discontent Cade's Rebellion Claim 
of Richard Duke of Tork Battle of WakefieldThe Wakefield Tower Battle 
of Towton Accession of Edward IV Henry VI a Prisoner in the Tower 
Warwick's Tergiversation Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury King Henry 
slain in the Wakefield Tower Continued Tragedies, Duke of Clarence's Dis- 
affection and Plotting; His Death in the Bowyer Tower Death of Edward IV 
Edward V and his Brother brought to the Tower by their Uncle Gloucester, who 
has Lord Hastings beheaded for loyalty to Edward Edward deposed Richard 
Crowned King Edward and his Brother secretly Murdered Discovery of their 
Bones and Burial at Westminster. 

THE reign of Richard II began with festivities and pageantries of 
unprecedented magnificence, and the Tower was the scene of some of 
the most prominent. On the day of the Coronation, according to 
Holinshed, the King, clad in white robes, issued from its gate sur- 
rounded by a vast assemblage of nobles and knights. The streets were 
hung with drapery, and the conduits ran wine. In Cheapside was a 
castle with four towers, from two sides of which " the wine ran forth 
abundantly, and at the top stood a golden angel, holding a crown, so 
contrived that when the King came near, he bowed and presented it 
to him. In each of the towers was a beautiful virgin, of stature and 



24 




15. GATEWAY OK THE BLOODY TOWER. From an engraving by F, Nash, 1821. 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 25 

age like unto the King, apparelled in white vestures, who blew in the 
King's face leaves of gold and flowers of gold counterfeit. On the 
approach of the cavalcade, the damsels took cups of gold, and filling 
them with wine at the spouts of the castle, presented them to the King 
and his nobles." 

These revels were scarcely ended, when the Wat Tyler insurrec- 
tion broke out, and the King, with his mother, fled for refuge within 
the Tower from which he had lately so proudly emerged. The insur- 
gents assembled on Blackheath and asked for a conference. Richard 
having heard mass in the chapel, sailed down the Thames to meet them, 
but was so frightened by their menacing looks that he precipitately 
fled back to the Tower. Therefore the angry mob advanced, quar- 
tered themselves in and near St. Katharine's Hospital and invested the 
fortress, " hooting," says Froissart, " as loud as if the devils were in 
them." The Lord Mayor, Walworth, recommended a sally upon them, 
as the majority were drunk, but this was deemed too desperate, and 
the King declared he would meet them and hear their grievances. He 
had no sooner quitted the gates, than some of the insurgents, who had 
lain concealed, broke into the fortress, and killed some of the King's 
officers. 1 But their main quarry was the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the King's Chancellor, Simon of Sudbury, whom John Ball, the Socialist 
priest, had furiously denounced. They made their way into the chapel 
where he was engaged in prayer. " Where is the traitor to the king- 
dom, where is the spoiler of the Commons ? " they shouted, and Sud- 
bury replied, " Here am I, my sons ; your Archbishop, neither traitor 
nor spoiler." They dragged him out on Tower Hill. He saw what 
was coming and warned them, but in vain. After he had spoken 
further, and given as far as in him lay absolution to John Starling of 
Essex, who was standing ready to behead him, he knelt down. He was 
horribly mutilated, not being killed till the eighth blow of the axe. 
Hales the treasurer and two others were slain with him, and all the 

1 Stow says that though there was a garrison of 1,200 well-armed men in the Tower, 
they were so panic-stricken that they offered no resistance to the rebels, many of whom rushed 
into the King's chamber and wantonly rolled about upon his bed, and insisted on kissing his 
mother. Mr. Trevelyan, in his England in the Age of Wy cliff e, evidently thinks that Richard 
betrayed this fortress to the rebels as Louis XVI did the Tuileries in 1792, and sent orders 
that the mob were to be admitted. 



26 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

heads were stuck on poles, a cap on the Archbishop's to distinguish him, 
and were placed on London Bridge. Two days later Sudbury's head 
gave place to Wat Tyler's, and he was buried with great pomp in his 
Cathedral at Canterbury, to which he had been a great benefactor. 
His fine monument is still to be seen there. 

How this rebellion was quelled is no part of our subject, but the 
troubles of King Richard were by no means ended. In 1387 he had 
again to fly to the Tower for security against his uncle Gloucester and the 
other disaffected barons. His weakness and imbecility, and the cor- 
ruptness of his ministers, had exasperated the nation against him, and 
Gloucester seized the regal authority and placed it in the hands of 
commissioners. The King summoned a Parliament at Nottingham 
which supported him ; the nobles retorted by marching on London 
with forty thousand men. There was much anxiety and some fighting, 
but Archbishop Courtenay mediated with great patience and wisdom. 
Richard had gone to the Tower and was in fact besieged, and in the 
great Council Chamber there Courtenay arranged a meeting between 
the nobles and the King, with the result that the mutual differences 
were for the time adjusted. But the King had not in the least re- 
gained the confidence either of the nobles or of the commonalty. In 
fact the prominent members of the Parliament which had declared in 
his favour were arrested. Some were fined, others banished, others 
confined in the Tower. Of these latter Sir Robert Tresylian, Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas ; Brembre, Mayor of London ; Sir John 
Salisbury, Sir John Beauchamp and Sir James Berners were put to death 
at Tyburn. One of the victims calls for special mention. Sir Simon 
Burley had distinguished himself under the Black Prince in the French 
war. Edward had such a high opinion of him that he bequeathed the 
education of his son Richard to him. He seems to have justified the 
choice in the early days of the young King, and it was he who arranged 
his marriage .with Anne of Bohemia, thereby incurring the enmity of 
the Lancastrian party. Although he had warned the King of his folly 
jn the early days of his reign, he supported him in Parliament in his 
struggle against the barons, and in consequence he was sentenced on 
May 5, 1388, to be hanged, drawn and quartered, but this was com- 
muted to beheading. We have seen that Archbishop Sudbury was 




ASSAULT ON A FORTRESS. 

From a MS. of Boccaccio de Cast/ties Vironim et Foeminaruin Illustriitm. 
British Museum, 35,321. 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 27 

executed on Tower Hill, but that was by mob violence. Burley was 
now condemned by law to die on the same spot. It was the first legal 
execution on the place which was for many years to come the regular 
place of execution. 

Richard bitterly resented this execution. He never forgave it. 
Burley had been a loyal and faithful friend both to his father and him- 
self, and he waited for his opportunity of revenge. It came at last. 
He was accustomed to hold festivals from time to time with tournaments 
and feastings, and there was special merrymaking on the occasion of his 
second marriage. His first wife, " the good Anne " of Bohemia, died in 
1396, and next year he married Isabel, daughter of Charles VI., the 
mad King of France. She was lodged in the Tower, awaiting her 
coronation. In the midst of the festivities the Duke of Gloucester, 
with the Earls of Arundel and Warwick and some others, were treacher- 
ously seized, and brought to the Tower. Gloucester was shipped off 
to Calais and murdered by the King's command ; Arundel was beheaded 
on Tower Hill ; Warwick was confined in the Beauchamp Tower, named 
after him. But Richard dared not kill a man who had more than any 
man living fought for his country in the French wars, and he was sent 
away to the Isle of Man and kept close prisoner for life. 

But Nemesis presently came. Arundel's memory was revered by 
the people, who knew him as one of their great heroes, and his grave in 
the Church of the Austin Friars was visited by crowds day by day. 
Meanwhile the wretched King lost all self-control. Probably his mind 
had become unhinged. He dissolved the Parliament, announced that 
he intended to rule without one, and seized the lands of his uncle, John of 
Gaunt, who had lately died. On August 19, 1399, Gaunt's son, Henry 
of Lancaster, landed in England, made him prisoner in Wales and 
brought him to London. On September 2 he was lodged in the Tower 
with the universal approval of the nation. On the 29th he formally 
resigned the crown " with a cheerful mien," and next day Henry IV. 
seated himself on the throne. The fallen man remained in the 
fortress for a while, but as it became known that conspiracies were being 
formed to replace him on the throne, it was decided to remove him 
secretly and confine him in some secure place. First he was taken to 
Leeds Castle in Kent, then to Yorkshire. There is no reasonable doubt 



28 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

that he died at Pontefract on February 14, 1400, probably of starvation. 
His body was brought to London, and exposed to the public in St. 
Paul's, was then buried at King's Langley, and afterwards removed to 
Westminster Abbey by Henry V, whom as a boy he had treated with 
kindness. 

There was a grand ceremonial in the Tower on the eve of Henry 
IV's Coronation, and forty-six new Knights of the Bath watched their 
arms all night in St. John's Chapel. But the fortress under the Lan- 
castrian kings became less of a royal residence and more of a prison. 

Henry IV, after the Battle of Shrewsbury, shut up in the Tower 
some of the adherents of Owen Glendower, and also a number of preach- 
ing Friars, who had circulated taunting rhymes against him to excite an 
insurrection, and who in due course died as traitors at Tyburn. But 
King Henry's most illustrious prisoner here was James, the son and heir 
of Robert III, King of Scotland. That unfortunate monarch, amiable 
and just, but infirm in body as in will, was heavily troubled by the 
plottings of his brother the Duke of Albany, and also by the divisions 
arising out of the English troubles. The Earl of Northumberland and 
his son Hotspur were joined by Earl Douglas, and they were all defeated 
at Shrewsbury. Poor old King Robert, worried by this, and having 
good reason to distrust Albany, determined to send his remaining son 
James, a boy of eleven (his eldest son, the Duke of Rothsay, had been got 
rid of by foul play), for safety to France, for the expressed reason 
that he could receive a good education there. The vessel conveying 
him was intercepted off Flamborough Head by an English ship, and the 
boy was conveyed to London ; Henry IV gave orders that? he should 
be confined in the Tower. This was in February, 1406. His poor old 
father sank under this fresh trouble and died that year, and thus James 
became King. But King Henry still, contrary to all law, kept him 
prisoner, and the Duke of Albany was appointed regent. 

For nineteen years the young King remained in exile. From the 
recent publication of English and Scottish records we learn that his ex- 
penses in the Tower were reckoned at 6s. Sd. a day for himself and $s. 4^. 
for his suite. Though his capture was a flagrant breach of law, he was 
well treated and received an excellent education. He was moved 
about from time to time : part of the while he was in Nottingham 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 29 

Castle, then at Evesham, then at the palace of the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury at Croydon. The poem which he wrote in his captivity, " The 
King's Quhair " (Little Book), was the expression of his love for Lady 
Jane Beaufort, whom he met at Windsor. His marriage with her 
attached him to the royal family of England, and at length in 1424 he 
obtained his release, returned, and took possession of his throne, ruled 
with vigour and justice, until his earnest endeavours to assure the rights 
and just treatment of his people led to his assassination in 1436. 

Another royal prisoner, partly contemporaneous with King James, 
and not less illustrious in history, was Charles, Duke of Orleans. 
Richard II, as we have seen, married for his second wife Isabel of 
Valois, daughter of King Charles VI. of France. After his death 
she married Charles, Duke of Orleans, whose clever, reprobate 
father Louis, brother of Charles VI, had been assassinated by 
order of the Duke of Burgundy. The two young people were 
therefore first cousins. When Louis had laid claim to the French 
throne, our Henry IV made a counterclaim, and thus there was fierce 
rivalry between the two men, and Louis took every opportunity of send- 
ing insulting messages to " the usurping Duke of Lancaster," and 
married his son Charles to the young widowed Queen, when Hal, the 
madcap Prince of Wales, was eagerly wooing her. The hapless young 
wife died in childbirth in 1409, her husband being only nineteen years 
old. He bewailed his loss in some very beautiful verses. The little 
child lived to become Duchess of Alenc/on. Reasons of State induced 
Charles to marry again, his wife being Bona, daughter of the Count of 
Armagnac, who bore him no offspring. In 1415 came the memorable 
invasion of France and the great English victory at Agincourt. Charles, 
with his brothers and other members of the French royal family, had 
done their best in defence of their rights. Shakespeare depicts his zeal 
and his hatred of the invader in his flying utterances. The brave fellow 
fell among the wounded, and was found by the victor bleeding and 
speechless on the field. He made much of him, brought him to Eng- 
land, and sent him to the White Tower, fixing a ransom of 300,000 
crowns on his head. He was now twenty-four years old, and Henry was 
anxious that the ransom should not be forthcoming. For he now 
married Isabel's youngest sister, Catherine of Valois, and it was most 



30 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

important in his estimate that Charles should have no children to dis- 
pute the rights of those of his wife. It was part of the^treaty into which 
he entered that he should succeed to the French throne, and a son of 
Charles of Orleans would be a most formidable rival. The result was 
that the latter remained a prisoner in England for five and twenty 
years. 

And here he continued faithful to his old troubadour instincts, and 
was constantly occupied in writing lyrics, chiefly on his[lost love and his 
absent wife, some in French, some in English, in which he became pro- 
ficient. There is in the British Museum a manuscript volume of his 
poems, beautifully illuminated, with the arms of Henry VII and Prince 
Arthur introduced into the borders. It contains our frontispiece, the 
oldest picture of the Tower of London which is known to exist. In 
the background is London Bridge with the City behind it, in front 
Traitors' Gate, though the name had not yet been given. There 
is the Prince seated in the now demolished banqueting hall, writ- 
ing his verses. He is seen again looking out of window, evidently 
hoping for freedom, and again we see him below embracing the messen- 
ger who brings his ransom. Next we behold him riding away, a freed 
man ; and in the distance he is seen finally seated in the boat, which is 
being pulled off to the ship which shall carry him back to France. 

That deliverance did not come until 1440. Henry V had been 
dead eighteen years, his widow Catherine, had married Owun Tudor 
and his conquests in France were now nearly all lost, thanks to the 
Maid of Orleans and to Charles's natural brother, John of Dunois. 
Every year Charles's life had become more precious to France, as the 
children of Charles VI dropped one by one into the grave. The Duke 
of Burgundy paid the enormous ransom, and Charles returned to find 
his wife Bona dead, and his daughter a woman of thirty. Reasons 
of State caused him to marry again, his third consort being Mary of 
Cleves. By her he had a son, who afterwards became King Louis XII. 

A large body of prisoners of a widely different character, namely 
the Lollards, occupied the Tower at the same period ; the most remark- 
able of them was Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham. There is un- 
doubtedly much mystery about his life and doings. He was a gentleman 
of Herefordshire, and makes his first appearance in history as a trusted 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 31 

servant of Henry IV, who committed to him the charge of putting 
down insurrection in Wales at the time of the battle of Shrewsbury. 
It was then that he made the acquaintance of the Prince of Wales, 
which ripened into close friendship. In 1409, when a second time a 
widower, he married Joan, Lady Cobham, who on her side was in her 
third widowhood. She brought him two Kentish estates, Cobham 
Manor and Cowling Castle, and in this latter he took up his residence, 
and still remained high in favour of Henry IV and his son. Wyclif 
died on the last day of 1384. His opinions had become largely popular, 
in Kent as much as anywhere. A severe law was passed against them 
in 1401. How Oldcastle had come to adopt these there is no evidence 
to show, but in 1410 a great outcry was made against him because his 
chaplain was preaching Lollard doctrines, and he was accused of trying 
to bring the Prince of Wales over to them. Convocation which met 
at St. Paul's in March, 1413, just before the death of Henry IV, de- 
nounced him unsparingly, and produced manuscripts emanating from 
Paternoster Row of which he was alleged to be the author. It is said 
that Henry V was so mindful of his old friendship that he wanted ta 
prevent action against him, though he viewed his opinions with horror,, 
and tried in vain to wean him from them. The sequel was that he 
withdrew from Court and shut himself up in Cowling Castle. When 
at length he was arrested he was brought before Archbishop Arundel 
and Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, who were both anxious to save him, 
perhaps knowing the regard of the King for him ; but he refused to 
recant and was handed over to the secular arm, and meanwhile was 
committed to the Tower. From it in some mysterious manner he 
escaped, and there is strong evidence that he engaged in a widespread 
Lollard conspiracy. The official indictment charged the conspirators 
with " plotting the death of the King and his brothers, with the pre- 
lates and other magnates of the realm, the transference of religious to 
secular employments, the spoliation and destruction of all cathedrals, 
churches and monasteries, and the elevation of Oldcastle to the position 
of regent of the kingdom." The plot was discovered and defeated. 
The body of conspirators found out in time that it was so, and escaped 
home ; Oldcastle left London and fled into Wales. He remained hid, 
but apparently still plotting, until he was again captured, was brought 



32 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

back to the Tower, and on December 14, 1417, was condemned to 
death, was drawn on a hurdle to St. Giles's Fields, and there hanged and 
burnt to ashes. This is the man whom Shakespeare, following an older 
play, represents as the original of FalstafT. But though young Old- 
castle was, as we have seen, a friend of Prince Hal in his youth, he 
was never a roue. 

It would almost seem as if fuller knowledge had convinced 
Shakespeare of this, and that it was in this way of retractation that he 
put these words in the Epilogue : " For Oldcastle died a martyr and 
this is not the man." 

The death of Henry V, August 31, 1422, was a heavy calamity for 
England. He was a wise and pious king, and his claim to the French 
crown, however ill-advised, was in his view just. His son was an infant 
of nine months old, and the mismanagement of the Government, and 
the victories of Jeanne d'Arc, the Maid of Orleans, make up a great 
chapter of English disaster. The heroine was burnt at Rouen, May 
31, 1431, but it was speedily seen that her work had been successful. 
Henry VI was indeed crowned King of France at Paris that year, but what 
popularity remained to the English party was dissipated by the arro- 
gance of the King's rulers. He returned to England, and the cause 
still went down. His two royal guardians and uncles, the Dukes of Bed- 
ford and Gloucester, were at bitter feud. Two other nobles were now 
grown active and strong. The first was Henry Beaufort,[Bishop of Win- 
chester, the illegitimate son of John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford, 
a man of great ability as well as of patriotism. Henry V had reposed 
strong confidence in him, and had willed that he should be the guardian 
of his son during his minority. This had been set aside, but although 
Bedford and Gloucester had been substituted, their absence abroad and 
their quarrels gave Beaufort real power, which had steadily grown. 
The other was Richard, Earl of Warwick. He too had been highly 
esteemed by Henry V, and he and Beaufort were now exerting them- 
selves to guide the King wisely, when he on attaining his majority was 
foolishly interfering in matters which he did not understand. Bedford 
died, the English cause in France grew more and more hopeless, and 
through Beaufort's influence Henry married Margaret of Anjou, niece 
of King Charles VII. A few years followed during which Henry gave 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 33 

himself to useful work, the foundations of Eton and King's College, 
Cambridge, among them. Gloucester died in 1447 ; murder was sus- 
pected, but probably without ground. Beaufort died the same 
year ; William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, was murdered in 1450. 
That nobleman was one of the most distinguished in England. His 
father and three brothers had died on battlefields in the French 
wars. He had been a Knight of the Garter for thirty years when the 
Cade rebellion broke out, and his enemies got up against him a charge 
of supporting it. He took ship at Dover to fly to Calais, but was cap- 
tured in the Strait by the captain of a vessel called Nicholas of the Tower. 
When he heard the name he lost all hope, for he had been told by a 
soothsayer that if he could escape the danger of the Tower he would be 
safe. His head was hacked off, and his body thrown upon Dover beach. 

The Tower was ever receiving new occupants, and the kingdom was 
becoming more and more disturbed. Cade's rebellion broke out in 
June, 1450, and was a very formidable danger for a short time. The 
King, to propitiate the rebels, sent Lord Say to the Tower ; they 
dragged him forth and beheaded him in Cheapside. The rebellion was 
put down in consequence of the worthlessness of Cade himself, but the 
discontent grew, being increased by the high-handed dealing of Queen 
Margaret, and that same year Richard, Duke of York, proclaimed him- 
self, with the sanction of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, as the 
deliverer of the kingdom from anarchy. The difficulties were increased 
by the mental illness of the King, from which after a while he recovered, 
but his popularity had still further decreased. The Queen bore him a 
son, but this strengthened York's ambition. He claimed the crown and 
civil war began. The partisans of York made an attack on the Tower, 
and here comes a decided novelty in its history. It is said that can- 
non were first used at the battle of Crecy. They were used now to 
batter the Tower walls, but unsuccessfully apparently. When the moat 
was cleared out in 1843 a great number of stone cannon balls were 
found, which were probably a relic of that bombardment. They are 
now under a glass case in the Beauchamp Tower. Similar balls are 
shown in our illustration. 

On December 29, 1460, York was defeated by Queen Margaret and 
slain at the battle of Wakefield, while King Henry was keeping Christ- 

D 



34 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

mas in London. She was fighting for her son's rights ; the King was 
under the care of the Earl of Warwick, who was actually supporting 
the claims of the Yorkists. In the following February Margaret was 
defeated three times, and Edward, Duke of York, was proclaimed King 
in London without waiting for Parliament. On Palm Sunday, 1461, 
the battle of Towton, the most terrible ever fought on English ground, 
placed the kingdom in Edward IV's hands. The number of prisoners 
sent up to the Tower after the battle of Wakefield caused what had 
been hitherto the Hall Tower to be called " the Wakefield Tower," a 
name which it has borne ever since. Queen Margaret still kept an army 
in the north, and Henry moved about from place to place. In 1464 
he was captured and lodged in the Tower. Statements differ as to his 
treatment. One account says that Warwick, acting for the Yorkists, 
carried him through Cheapside and Cornhill with his legs bound under 
a horse with leathern thongs and a peasant's hat on his head. Yorkist 
writers assert that he was treated " with all humanity and reverence." 
He remained five years in this imprisonment; then came a revolution. 
Warwick joined Margaret and King Edward's brother, the Duke of 
Clarence, and with such apparent vigour that Edward fled to Flanders. 
Henry was brought forth and marched through the London streets 
with great pomp to Westminster. But the chronicler Hall contemp- 
tuously remarks, with an epigram worthy of Sam Weller, " This moved 
the citizens of London as much as the fire painted on the wall warmed 
the old woman." The citizens were flourishing under Yorkist encour- 
agement of commerce, and were by no means disposed to Lancastrian 
restoration. Edward came back, and on Easter Day, April 14, 1471, 
Warwick was slain at the battle of Barnet, and Queen Margaret was 
defeated at Tewkesbury on May 4 following, and her son was slain. On 
May 21 King Henry was murdered in the Wakefield Tower by Richard. 
Duke of Gloucester, on the very day of the return of his brother King 
Edward to London. 

In the octagonal chamber of the Wakefield Tower in which the 
regalia are now placed are two deep recesses opened into the walls. 
That to the south-east was formerly an oratory, and is so described in 
the Tower records in 1238. Tradition states that in this oratory Duke 
Richard, entering through the passage from the palace, stabbed Henry 




ARTILLERY OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 

From a MS. of " The Chronicles of England," Vol. III. 

British Museum, 14 E. IV. 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 35 

to death with many wounds as he was praying. His body was next day 
carried to St. Paul's, " and his face was open that every man might see 
him, and in his lying he bled." He was buried at Chertsey and the 
word went about that he was a saint and martyr. Henry VII after- 
wards requested Pope Julius II to canonize him, but gave up the idea 
on learning how much it would cost. He had the body removed from 
Chertsey, but to this day it is uncertain whether it was buried at St. 
George's, Windsor, or in Westminster Abbey. 

The reigns of the Kings of the House of York are full of Tower 
tragedies. Edward IV lived a good deal in the Tower, increased its 
fortifications, and deepened the moat. He had two brothers, the 
Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester. The former had long been dis- 
affected, had joined Margaret of Anjou and the Earl of Warwick, whose 
daughter he had married, in the conspiracy which caused Edward's 
temporary flight, and after the latter had recovered himself and was 
again firmly seated on the throne, Clarence was certainly plotting against 
him. Clarence's wife was dead and he aspired to the hand of Mary of 
Burgundy, to Edward's indignation, who saw that he still hoped for the 
crown. He first sent him to the Tower, then accused him before 
Parliament, and he was sentenced to death. Edward was loth to carry 
the sentence out, but the House of Commons urged him, and to avoid 
the disgrace of a public execution he gave orders that it should be done 
in secret, and according to tradition he was drowned in a butt of malm- 
sey in the Bowyer Tower. And perhaps it is owing to his brother 
Gloucester's general bad character that he is accused of superintending 
the execution. The memory of this tragedy is said to have embittered 
the whole of Edward's subsequent life. He was now secure on his 
throne, but his self-indulgent life was destroying his health, and his 
recklessness, joined with the perfidy of Louis XI, continually pro- 
duced fresh troubles. He died at the age of forty-one, on April 19, 
1483. His wife had borne him ten children, of whom seven survived 
him, two sons and five daughters. 

The short reign of Edward V was merely a struggle for power 
between his uncle Gloucester and his mother's relations, the Woodvilles. 
He was in Wales when his father died. His uncle, Lord Rivers, and 
half-brother, Lord Richard Grey, were bringing him up for his Corona- 



36 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

tion, when the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham intercepted them 
at Northampton, sent them prisoners to Pomfret, and brought the 
young King up to the Tower with every demonstration of loyalty, even 
declaring that the coronation should take place on June 22. Queen 
Elizabeth, anticipating what was coming, threw herself into Sanctuary 
with the Abbot of Westminster with her other son. A Parliament was 
summoned ostensibly to declare Gloucester protector, but he had 
already laid his train. The queen was called upon to allow her second 
boy to be placed with his brother in the Tower, and though she could 
see from the windows carpenters, vintners, cooks all making prepara- 
tions for her son's coronation, she knew in her heart that it would never 
be. Gloucester proceeded to make out a case for the illegitimacy of 
the children, on the ground that their father had made a previous 
marriage. That he had been a gross libertine was already notorious ; 
Gloucester produced a witness who declared that he had married the 
King to one of his mistresses, Elinor Talbot. It is incredible, but there 
may have been some miserable frolic. Gloucester called a Council in 
the Council Chamber of the White Tower, and there caused his claim 
to be put forth in a tentative fashion. Lord Hastings thereupon de- 
clared his loyalty to Edward, and Gloucester, who had been listening 
outside, strode into the room. Turning up his sleeve, he showed an 
arm which he declared had been withered by the sorceries of Hastings, 
and called on the terrified councillors to condemn him. Words were 
useless. " I will not dine until your head is off," he cried, and Hastings 
was carried down to Tower Green. The block was out of place, but 
a beam of wood was near ; he was thrown on it and the deed was con- 
summated. 

Gloucester then got a creature, a brother of the Lord Mayor, to 
preach at Paul's Cross from the text (Wisdom iv. 3), " Bastard slips 
shall not take deep root," a sermon impugning the validity of Edward's 
marriage, but the immediate result was to fill the listeners with shame 
and indignation. The Duke of Buckingham made a speech of the like 
character at the Guildhall, and it became known that Gloucester was 
getting an army together. So a packed assembly went to the schemer 
and offered him the crown, which he with feigned reluctance accepted. 
This was on June 28, 1483, and on July 6 he was crowned at West- 



IN THE DATS OF THE LATER PLANTAGENETS 37 

minster. Immediately afterwards he started on a progress through the 
country with the intention of strengthening his position by granting 
privileges and making promises, but the conscience of the Londoners 
and of the country was roused, and almost immediately a fresh shock 
was given by the news that the boy King and his brother had been 
murdered in the Tower. There can be no doubt of the main fact, but 
the precise date is uncertain. Richard had placed the two boys under 
the care of Sir Robert Brackenbury, and after he had left London 
sent a message ordering him to kill them. When Brackenbury refused 
he sent Sir James Tyrrell with a warrant to receive possession of the 
Tower keys. Tyrrell's groom, John Dighton, with one of the 
gaolers, Miles Forrest, entered the chamber of the two boys in the 
Bloody Tower, killed them, called on Tyrrell to recognize the bodies, 
then buried them at the foot of a staircase. This was some time in the 
latter part of August, and was not divulged until it was known that a 
plot was hatching to place the young Edward upon the throne. 

The life of Richard III, which bears the name of Sir Thomas More 
as its author, but which appears to have been written by Cardinal 
Morton and edited by More, gives information which may be im- 
plicitly trusted as to the circumstances of this cruel murder. The new 
king, superstitious as wicked men so frequently are, was uneasy in his 
mind, and ordered the Tower priest to remove the bodies, and he did 
so, but dying soon after, no one could ascertain where he had laid them. 
More does not know, and says so frankly. Shakespeare expresses the 
uncertainty : 

The Chaplain of the Tower hath buried them, 
But where, to say the truth, I do not know. 

Henry VII would have been glad to learn at the time when Perkin 
Warbeck was declaring that he was one of the alleged murdered boys. 
It was not until the reign of Charles II that two skeletons were found 
under the old stone steps of the royal chapel in the great keep. They 
were covered with earth and had been carefully bestowed. As they 
answered in every way to the bones which had been vainly sought after 
it was concluded, and certainly with probability, that they were the 
bones of the murdered children, and they were laid, by King Charles's 
command, in a royal sepulchre in Westminster Abbey. 



CHAPTER IV 

IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 

Henry Vll. Battle of Bosworth Thomas Wyatt and the Cat Edward, Earl of 
Warwick Perkin Warbeck Sir William Stanley Edmund de la Pole, Duke 
of Suffolk Sir John Tyrrell Sir John Wyndham Marriage of Prince Arthur 
and Katharine His Death and Death of his Mother, Elizabeth of Tork Death 
of Henry VII Henry VIII Empson and Dudley Marriage with Katharine 
of Aragon High Festival Building of the Lieutenant's House and other Im- 
provements Stafford, Duke of Buckingham Marriage with Anne Boleyn 
Completion of the Tower Buildings Birth of the Princess Elizabeth Execution 
of Anne Fisher and More Lord and Lady Howard The " Pilgrimage of 
Grace " and its Victims Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter The Pole Family 
Treachery of Geoffrey Pole Thomas Cromwell, his Rise and Fall Marriage 
with Anne of Cleves and Divorce, 1540 Marriage with Katharine Howard, and 
her Execution Anne Askew, Protestant Martyr, Friend of Katharine Parr 
Festivities to French Ambassadors Dukes of Norfolk and Surrey Condemned 
Death of Henry VIII Edward VI His Uncles the Seymours Their Fall 
Ascendancy of the Duke of Northumberland Other Executions The King's 
Death. 

WE have come to the end of secret murders, but the Tower was 
never more in use as a State prison than under the house of Tudor, 
which began its royal course after the battle of Bosworth, August 22, 
1485. 

In the reign of Richard III Henry Wyatt, a gentleman of Surrey 
and member of the House of Commons, was thrown into the Tower 
for favouring the claims of Henry Tudor. According to his son's 
statement, Richard had him tortured, vinegar and mustard being 
forced down his throat, and afterwards remonstrated with him. " Wyatt, 
why art thou such a fool ? " said he, " Henry of Richmond is a 
beggarly pretender ; forsake him and become mine. Thou servest him 
for moonshine in water. I can reward thee, and I swear to thee, I will." 
" If I had chosen thee for my master," answered the prisoner, " I would 
have been faithful to thee. But the Earl of Richmond, poor and un- 



38 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 39 

happy though he be, is my master, and no allurement shall drive me 
from him, by God's grace." And here comes a pretty legend, we hardly 
dare regard it otherwise, which is told in the Wyatt papers. King 
Richard, in a rage, had him confined in a low and narrow cell, where 
he had not clothes sufficient to warm him and was a hungered. A cat 
came into this cell, he caressed her for company, laid her in his bosom 
and won her love. And so she came to him every day and brought him 
a pigeon when she could catch one. He complained to his keeper of 
his short fare, and received for answer, that " he durst not better it." 
" But if I can provide any," said Sir Henry, " will you dress it for me ? " 
'* I may well enough promise that," was the answer, and so he promised. 
And he was as good as his word, and dressed each time the pigeon which 
the faithful cat brought. When Richmond became King Henry VII 
he rewarded his faithful liegeman by making him a Privy Councillor 
and giving him rich offices enough to enable him to buy Allington Castle, 
one of the finest in Kent. He was equally well regarded by Henry VIII, 
who visited him at Allington ; but more of this farther on. 

The two most noteworthy occupants of the Tower, however, in this 
reign, strangely different in character and circumstances, were brought 
into close connexion with each other. Edward, Earl of Warwick, was 
the eldest son of the Duke of Clarence, and was three years old when 
his father was put to death in the Tower. His early history is obscure ; 
at one time Richard III, after the death of his son, thought to nomin- 
ate him as his heir, but changed his mind, and sent him to Sheriff 
Hutton Castle, Yorkshire. After Bosworth Henry VII brought him 
from thence and shut him up in the Tower, his only offence being that 
he was the representative of the fallen dynasty of York. The injustice 
of this was widely felt, and this, combined with the uncertainty as to 
the whereabouts or movements of the youth, induced a usurper named 
Lambert Simnel to personate him in Ireland in 1487, and he was 
actually crowned in Dublin Cathedral. King Henry found it advis- 
able to bring the Earl forth for a day and march him through the 
streets to St. Paul's. It was the last day of his life that he spent outside 
the limits of the Tower. He was taken back and remained there for 
twelve years longer. And here we have to take up another history. 
Perkin Warbeck was the son of a citizen of Tournay, who came to 



4 o 

England as a serving man to two or three English, gentlemen, and in 
1491, moved by vanity and ambition, whilst in Ireland, where feeling 
against Henry VII was strong, declared himself to be the Duke of York, 
who had been reported murdered in the Tower with his brother 
Edward V. The King of Scotland, James IV, acknowledged him, and 
two years later gave him his own cousin, Catherine Gordon, to wife. 
Charles VIII of France also for a while acknowledged him. But his 
strongest ally was Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy. This remark- 
able woman has little to do with the Tower, but is too much connected 
with English history to be passed over. She was the sister of Edward IV, 
fifteen years old when he became King. In 1467 she married Charles, 
Duke of Burgundy, and is favourably remembered as having patronized 
Caxton, who gave up the Mastership of the Merchant-Adventurers of 
Bruges to enter her service, and produced his first great printing work 
under her patronage. In 1477 her husband was killed at the battle of 
Nancy, and she was left a childless widow. The rest of her life was 
spent in the Netherlands, and when Henry VII confiscated the dowry 
which her brother King Edward had granted her, nothing more was 
needed to ensure her hatred of his rule, and desire to get the Yorkist 
dynasty restored. She had abetted Simnel, and now furnished War- 
beck with means to carry out his attempt. When the latter, after 
repeated failures, was taken prisoner in October, 1497, his life was 
spared on his making full confession of his imposture, and he was then 
placed in the Tower, after being paraded through the streets in mockery. 
In 1498 he escaped, but was captured in a week, placed in the stocks 
in Westminster Hall and in Cheapside, and then sent back to the Tower. 
Next year he renewed his attempt at escape by bribing his gaolers, and 
unhappily induced the Earl of Warwick, who was of course nothing 
loth, to join him. The plot was discovered, and on November 23 War- 
beck was hanged at Tyburn, and five days later Warwick was beheaded 
on Tower Hill. This last was a shameful act of injustice, but Henry 
longed to get rid of him, and it is said that his aversion was furthered by 
the refusal of King Ferdinand of Aragon to marry his daughter Katha- 
rine to Arthur, Prince of Wales, so long as a son of the Duke of Clarence 
existed as a possible claimant of the succession. When, years later 
Katharine of Aragon was bewailing the injustice done to her, she ob- 




17. VAULTED ROOM IN THE CRYPT OF THE WHITE TOWER, IN WHICH 
THE RACK STOOD. From a drawing in lite Gardner Collection. 







18. A CELL IN THE BLOODY TOWER. From a drawing by ) r . Wykeham Archer. British Museum \ 








19. THE PRIVY COUNCIL CHAMBKR IN THE LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a drawing by P. fustyne, 

1873. Gardner Collection. 




20. A ROOM IN THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER, WITH PRISONERS' INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS. 

From an old engraving. 




21. THE BBAUCHAMP TOWER, AND ST. PETER'S CHAPEL. From a drawing by P. Justyne, 1873. 

Gardner Collection. 




22. THE LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a drawing by C. J. Richardson, 1871. Gardner Collection. 




23. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHERINE, LOOKING WEST. From an engraving by 

J. Carter, 1780. 




24. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHERINE, LOOKING EAST. From an engraving by 

B. T. Pottticey, 1779. 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 41 

served that it was a judgment of God upon her because her former 
marriage was sealed with blood, namely Warwick's. 

There was yet another victim to Warbeck's imposture. Sir William 
Stanley, who had turned the scale in King Henry's favour at Bosworth 
Field, was, in 1495, impeached as having been heard to say that " if 
he were sure that the young man called Perkin was really the son of 
Edward IV, he would never draw sword against him." For this he was 
sent to the Tower, tried in its Council Hall, and beheaded on Tower 
Hill, February 16, 1495. 

Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, was the son of Elizabeth, 
sister of Edward IV. His plottings against Henry VII, encouraged by 
Maximilian, failed, and he fled the kingdom, and remained abroad 
several years. But Philip, King of Castile, who had given him shelter, 
visiting Henry in 1506, persuaded him to spare the fugitive's life on 
his surrender, and Suffolk was committed to the Tower. Here he re- 
mained until 1513, when he was beheaded by order of Henry VIII on 
a charge of plotting. But he had involved two men in his ruin ; Sir 
James Tyrrell, the same who had assisted at the murder of the two 
princes, and Sir John Wyndham, who had been knighted for his good 
service against Perkin Warbeck, were both executed on Tower Hill 
for their share in Suffolk's treason. Tragedies enough, these, for one 
reign ; yet we have hardly come to the end of them. The marriage of 
Prince Arthur with Katharine of Aragon took place in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral on November 14, 1501, and the rejoicings took the form of a 
succession of tournaments and feasts within the Tower walls. There 
were great pageants to emphasize the descent of the bridegroom from 
his namesake the British hero whose fabulous exploits fill the pages of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. But they could not alter the fact that he was 
a poor sickly child of fifteen, and five months later he died. The 
calamity was a terrible blow to his mother, Elizabeth, of York, whose 
health appears to have failed from that time. On February 2, 1503, 
she gave birth to a daughter, Katharine, in the Tower, and died nine 
days later, on her birthday, aged thirty-eight. An amiable and beau- 
tiful woman, according to all accounts ; " brilliant, witty, and pious," 
so says Erasmus. Six years later her husband was buried by her side 
in the Abbey. 



42 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

The reign of Henry VIII forms an epoch in the history of the Tower. 
There are tragical events in plenty, but there are other notes on which it 
is pleasant and interesting to dwell. He began his reign by imprisoning 
Empson and Dudley, who had been his father's instruments of extortion. 
He did so because he knew how they were hated by the nation, though 
he profited by their misdeeds, for Henry VII bequeathed him what was 
then the enormous sum of .1,850,000. Next year they were both be- 
headed on Tower Hill. Meanwhile the King was holding high festival 
to celebrate his marriage with his brother's widow Katharine. He 
was now nineteen years old, and she twenty-five. Surrounded by a 
splendid retinue he created four and twenty Knights of the Bath, after 
which there was a gorgeous procession from the Tower to Westminster ; 
the details are given at length, and dismal enough they are when one 
sees the hollowness of them all in what followed. Henry was bent on 
improving the Tower buildings, and appointed Commissioners to take 
the work in hand. In the S.W. corner a Lieutenant's house was built 
with many chambers, having a free passage both into the Beau- 
champ and Garden Towers. This house was flanked by two smaller 
buildings, warders' houses, one on the West, the other on the 
South. The Bell Tower part of this building had a stone vault pierced 
for archers, who from it could sweep the outer works. This is called in old 
records the Strong Room. Though not intended for the reception of 
prisoners, it presently received an illustrious one, as we shall see. In 
the State Papers of the reign are the following memoranda of repairs 
done in the Tower during the summer of 1532 : " Work done by car- 
penters and taking down old timber, etc., at St. Thomas' Tower, and 
for alterations in the palace." " There has also been taken down the 
old timber in the four turrets of the White Tower ; and the old timber 
of Robert the Devil's Tower that is Julius Caesar's tower ; and of 
the tower near the King's wardrobe. Half of the White Tower is now 
embattled, coped, indented, and cressed with Caen stone to the extent 
of 500 feet." The cost is given as ^3,593 14^. *od. 

But we have perforce to return to the tragical records. We have 
already recorded how the Earl of Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, was 
beheaded in 1513. Edward Stafford, third Duke of Buckingham, was 
the great grandson of Humphrey Stafford, son of Anne, daughter of 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 43 

Thomas of Woodstock, son of Edward III. Humphrey Stafford had 
received his dukedom for his services under Henry VI, had tried in 
vain to reconcile Queen Margaret with the Yorkists, and was slain at the 
battle of Northampton. His grandson was executed at Salisbury by 
Richard III in 1483. The Duke with whom we are now concerned 
was sworn a Privy Councillor in 1509, and was for a while high in favour 
with Henry VIII. But he hated Cardinal Wolsey, and the hatred was 
returned, and the Cardinal appears to have brought before the King 
some boasting speeches of the Duke about his royal lineage, implying a 
claim to the throne. For this he was sent to the Tower, was tried for 
high treason, and on May 17, 1521, was beheaded on the Green. Shake- 
speare gives us several pathetic touches in his Henry VIII. Half a dozen 
Augustinian friars, in gratitude for the many kind deeds which the 
Duke had done to poor religious men in his lifetime, took up his body 
and buried it in the Church of Austin Friars. 

We come to scenes of revelry again in May, 1533, when the King 
brought hither his new wife Anne Boleyn ; painful enough to read in 
connexion with the rest of the history. He had gone through a mar- 
riage service with her in the previous January, before his divorce from 
Katharine had been pronounced. Anne was now some months ad- 
vanced in pregnancy. She was brought to the Tower preparatory to 
a stately march to Westminster for her coronation, and it was all very 
magnificent to look at, but the people viewed it in sullen silence ; 
enthusiasm there was none. What was yet worse, the King's passion 
for her was already on the wane. She gave birth to the future Queen 
Elizabeth on September 7, 1533, had a miscarriage the next year, and 
a still-born child in January, 1536, only three weeks after the death of 
Katharine of Aragon. On Mayday following she was charged with 
unfaithfulness to the King, was brought a prisoner to the Tower next 
day, tried in the Great Hall on the I5th, beheaded on Tower Green on 
the 1 9th. This is not the place to discuss the question of her guilt or 
innocence. The twenty-five peers who tried her gave a unanimous 
verdict against her ; the President of the Court was her uncle, the Duke 
of Norfolk. Mr. Gairdner expresses his opinion that the evidence 
against her was not conclusive, but that her conduct had long been 
indecorous. 



44 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

But between her coronation and execution two illustrious victims 
had passed away. John Fisher, who as a College Principal had done 
splendid service in the way of advice and assistance to the munificent 
works of the "Lady Margaret," Countess of Richmond, Henry VII's 
mother, was raised in 1504 to the bishopric of Rochester. He was a man 
of saintly life, and eager to promote learning. There seems to have 
been a mutual distrust between him and Wolsey, which Burnet bluntly 
attributes to Fisher's grief at the Cardinal's lax morality. When the 
question of King Henry's divorce was raised Fisher expressed himself 
firmly against it, and when, further, the doctrine of the royal supremacy 
was proposed to Convocation, he declared that the acceptance of it 
would " cause the clergy of England to be wiped out of God's holy 
Catholic Church." When it was carried in Convocation, it was he who 
procured the addition of the saving clause " quantum per Dei legem licet." 
Unfortunately he compromised himself by giving countenance to 
Elizabeth Barton, " the nun of Kent," when the soi-disant prophetess 
threatened calamity to the King for his marriage with Anne Boleyn. 
In April, 1534, he and Sir Thomas More were summoned to Lambeth 
to take the oath to the Act of Succession. They both agreed to that 
portion of the Act which fixed the succession to the offspring of the 
King and Anne, but firmly objected to call the Princess Mary illegiti- 
mate, and to the words denying faith, truth, and obedience to the 
Roman Church. The commissioners were anxious, Cranmer at the 
head of them, to accept the submission as sufficient for the occasion, 
but they were both sent to the Tower ; and when the Act of Supremacy 
was passed in November, 1554, Secretary Cromwell read it to Fisher^ 
with the clause making it high treason to deny the King's right to the 
claim. Fisher declined to subscribe to it. Henry was unwilling to pro- 
ceed to extremities, but at this very moment Pope Paul III, ignorant 
(as he afterwards declared) of the unhappy relations between King and 
bishop, and desirous of rewarding learning, made Fisher a Cardinal. 
Henry broke out into ungovernable fury when he heard it, and declared 
that the red hat might come, but that there should be no head on which 
to place it. The bishop was brought to trial at Westminster and be- 
headed on Tower Hill June 15, 1535. " There is in this realm no man," 
said Sir Thomas More, " in wisdom, learning, and long approved 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 45 

virtue together, meet to be matched and compared with him." He 
died with perfect calmness and dignity. The head was fixed on London 
Bridge, and the body lay exposed to insult all day. In the evening it 
was buried without ceremony in the Church of Allhallows Barking. 

A fortnight later Sir Thomas More shared the same fate, and on 
the same charge. His brilliant abilities, wit, and virtue have made his 
name illustrious. Many of his noble friends visited him in confinement 
and did all they could to persuade him to yield, but in vain. Not only 
his firmness, but his cheerfulness remained undiminished. When he 
was brought through Traitors' Gate the porter, according to ancient 
custom, demanded his uppermost garment as his fee. More handed 
him his cap, telling him that this was his " uppermost garment," and 
that he wished it was of more value. When he ascended the scaffold 
he observed that it was somewhat insecure. " Prythee, good fellow," 
he said to one of the guards, " help me up ; when I come down let me 
shift for myself." And when the headsman prayed his forgiveness, 
" I forgive thee, good fellow, with all my heart," he said as he laid his 
head on the block. Immediately after he raised it for a moment to 
remove his beard. " That," he said, " has not committed treason ; 
pity it should be cut." 

Every succeeding year of this darkening reign brought more pris- 
oners to the Tower. Thence Lord Howard was sent with his wife, 
the King's niece, because they had married without the royal consent. 
Here the husband died and then the widow was released. She after- 
wards became the mother of Darnley. 

" The Pilgrimage of Grace," in other words the series of insurrec- 
tions which broke out in the North because of dissatisfaction at the 
promulgation of the reformed doctrines and the dissolution of the 
religious houses, filled the Tower dungeons with prisoners. Among 
them were the Lords Darcy and Hussey, Sir Robert Constable, Sir 
John and Lady Bulmer, Sir Francis Bigot, Sir Thomas Percy, brother 
of the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Stephen Hamilton, William, son of 
Lord Lumley, Nicholas Tempest and Robert Aske ; also the Abbots of 
Rievaulx, Fountains and Jervaux, and the Prior of Bridlington. All 
were convicted of treason and put to death in 1536. 

In 1538 Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter, Sir Edward Neville, 



46 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Sir Nicholas Carew and others were accused of holding a traitorous 
correspondence with Cardinal Pole, and were imprisoned in the Tower ; 
as were also the Cardinal's brothers, Lord Montague and Sir Geoffrey 
Pole, their mother the Countess of Salisbury, the Marchioness of 
Exeter, Sir Adrian Fortescue and Sir Thomas Dingley. Reginald Pole, 
who had never hesitated in his conferences with the King to condemn 
the divorce, had been entrusted by Henry to go on a mission to the 
Pope to make peace if possible. Pope Paul IV had made him a Car- 
dinal, to Henry's indignation, and he was still on the Continent. The 
Marquis of Exeter was a grandson of Edward IV, and Margaret, Coun- 
tess of Salisbury, was the daughter of his brother, the Duke of Clarence. 
The King was roused to fresh anger against them because Charles V 
and Francis I had laid aside their enmity and become friends, and the 
Pope, looking to them for assistance, had issued a bull of excommuni- 
cation against him. Geoffrey Pole saved his life by giving evidence 
against the plotters. Exeter and Montague were beheaded, December 9, 
1538, Carew on March 3 following. Lady Exeter was pardoned, but 
the Countess of Salisbury was kept in confinement for two years longer, 
when she was brought to the scaffold on the fatal Green. Froude thinks 
it was because she was found to be still secretly corresponding with her 
son the Cardinal against the King, and there were fresh alarms of a 
rising in the North under Sir John Neville. Froude discredits the 
story told by Lingard, that the aged Countess refused to lay her head 
on the block on the ground that she was no traitor, and that the heads- 
man hacked it off as he best-' could ; and Mr. Gairdner evidently does 
not believe it. 

Of the King's chief adviser in these terrible doings we have as yet 
said nothing, but it becomes necessary to do so now. Thomas Crom- 
well, who had risen from low estate, and whose early history is almost 
a blank to us, after a youth spent on the Continent, was appointed by 
Wolsey collector of his revenues of the see of York, entered Parliament 
in 1523 and became a member of Gray's Inn. Wolsey leaned much 
upon him, made him one of the commissioners appointed (1525) to 
inquire into the conditions of the smaller monasteries and in this work 
he acted with great harshness and he also managed the work of the 
foundation of the Cardinal's Colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. He 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 47 

seems to have remained faithful to Wolsey to the end, but it was he 
more than any one who persuaded Henry VIII to make himself supreme 
head of the Church by way of facilitating his divorce from Katharine, 
and he rose high in favour with the King and became Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. In 1535 he was made Vicar-General for a general visitation 
of churches, 'monasteries and clergy, was rewarded with large gifts 
of confiscated church lands, and was made Lord Chamberlain in 1539. 
This was the culmination of a career clever and wary, but tyrannical 
and oppressive to the English nation and utterly unprincipled towards 
foreign powers. His fall, which had long been desired by the Catholic 
party in England, was hastened by his negotiating the King's marriage 
with Anne of Cleves. Henry's disgust at his first sight of his affianced 
bride would not have sufficed to cause the agent's ruin, but the alliance 
with German Protestants, of which the marriage was to be the seal, was 
unpopular, and as it had served its purpose, nothing more was to be got 
out of it. For arranging the marriage he was created Earl of Essex 
April 1540, and on June 10 following the Duke of Norfolk denounced 
him as a traitor at the Council board, and he was at once sent to the 
Tower, charged with receiving bribes wholesale, selling commissions, 
secretly dispersing heretical books, and designing to marry the Princess 
Mary and make himself King. He was not tried but proceeded against 
by attainder. Archbishop Cranmer vainly tried to stem the tide. He 
was beheaded on Tower Green July 28, 1540. It was one sign of a 
Catholic reaction. The Tower and other metropolitan prisons were 
crowded with Protestant heretics, who were dragged away on hurdles 
and burnt in Smithfield, as were also some Catholics at the very same 
period for denying the King's supremacy. 

Anne of Cleves was married to Henry on January 6, 1540, and 
divorced in July following. She lived the rest of her life in England 
with a pension, quite content, and rode in the procession along with the 
Princess Elizabeth at Queen Mary's coronation. She was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, August 1557. 

Immediately after this divorce Henry married Katharine Howard, 
niece of the Duke of Norfolk, and for a while all seemed bright. The 
royal pair next year went on a tour through the North. At Hampton 
Court they kept All Saints' Day, 1541, with much solemnity, and the 



48 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

King gave directions to the celebrant, the Bishop of Lincoln, to return 
thanks to God " for the good life which he hoped to lead after sundry 
troubles." Next da7 after mass Archbishop Cranmer sorrowfully 
handed the King a paper which gave evidence of Katharine's unchastity 
both before and after marriage. She was confined for a while at Syon 
House, on February 10 was brought to the Tower, and beheaded on the 
Green three days later. It was a strange request which she made, and 
which was complied with that the block might previously be brought 
to her cell that she might learn how to place her head upon it aright. 
With her died Lady Rochford, who had connived at her immorali- 
ties. 

Anne Askew, our next prisoner, presents a strange contrast. She 
was the daughter of a Lincolnshire gentleman, who married in early life 
a Mr. Kyme, an ardent Roman Catholic. Anne's friends in London 
were equally ardent believers in the Reformed faith ; among these friends 
was Queen Katharine Parr. Anne's husband, who for some time had 
neglected her, charged her with heresy, resting his charge on the recently 
passed " Six Articles " Act, which ordained that denial of Transubstanti- 
ation should be punished with death by burning. It was in 1545 that 
she was charged. Bishop Bonner appears to have been so moved by the 
sight of her simple beauty as to try to save her, but the Chancellor, 
Wriothesley, pressed her with questions, and she was firm in her answers, 
and was condemned. Her first place of confinement was Newgate, 
but she was sent to the Tower to be racked. The rack, says Lord de 
Ros, was regarded with such horror by the people as to be applied 
only in secrecy, and there might have been an outbreak in the city had 
all this become known. The application of the torture was in order 
to force her to incriminate the ladies who had supported her, but she 
resolutely closed her lips, first declaring that she was grateful to all her 
friends and would not betray them, and that it was her faithful maid 
who had kept her from starvation by going out and begging for her 
" of the prentices and others she met in the streets." Wriothesley himself 
worked the rack until she was nearly dead. She was taken off the 
machine, but was no longer able to walk, so she was carried in a cart to 
Smithfield and burned. Queen Katharine appears to have been in 
danger, but the King's sympathies were moved by the accounts which 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 49 

reached him of the sufferer's noble constancy, and when Wriothesley 
came to him to excite him against the Queen, Henry called him a beast 
and a fool and drove him out of the room. 

One more cheerful record remains of this terrible reign. In 1546, 
in honour of the peace which had been made between France and 
England, the former country sent its Lord High Admiral, the Bishop 
of Evreux, and some other nobles on an embassy to England. They 
landed at Greenwich and thence were conducted to the Tower, where 
a splendid banquet awaited them ; thence to Lambeth Palace, and finally 
to Hampton Court, where the treaty was signed. 

And still we have two more illustrious prisoners to name in this 
reign. The Duke of Norfolk was now seventy-four years old. He had 
commanded the victorious army at Flodden, had led another victorious 
campaign in Scotland, and had done good service in France. He was 
a son-in-law of King Edward IV, and two of his nieces had been Queens 
of England. The jealousy of Henry was aroused ; he knew himself to 
be nearing his end, and feared that the Duke and his son, the Earl of 
Surrey, had designs upon the crown. He appointed Lord Hertford, 
his son's uncle, to be^his guardian during his minority, and sent to Par- 
liament a complaint that Norfolk and his son were plotting to seize the 
government. Surrey was accused of quartering the arms of King 
Edward the Confessor on his shield, after the manner of an heir-ap- 
parent, and also (it is shocking to have to record it) of having persuaded 
his sister, the widow of the King's natural son, the Duke of Richmond, 
to become Henry's mistress, of course with a view to ruling his move- 
ments. Surrey was tried by jury January 13, 1547, and perished six 
days later on Tower Hill. The Duke of Norfolk was condemned by 
bill of attainder, and would have died in like manner, had not the King 
himself died January 28, 1547, a few hours before the appointed time 
of execution. The Duke remained a prisoner until the accession of 
Mary, when he was released. He presided at the trial of the Duke of 
Northumberland, and died in his bed in 1554, a g e d eighty-one. 

The young Edward, now ten years old, was at Hatfield when his 
father died. Next day his uncle, the Earl of Hertford, brought him 
up to the Tower with great pomp and ceremony. Here he received 
knighthood by the accolade of his uncle, and in return conferred on him 





50 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

the title of Duke of Somerset. On February 24 the coronation took 
place at Westminster with the usual pageants. 

Almost immediately disturbances began. Thomas, Lord Seymour, 
Somerset's younger brother, was sent to the Tower on the charge of 
aspiring to the kingdom by offering marriage to the Princess Elizabeth. 
He had secretly married Queen Katharine Parr on King Henry's death, 
and when she died (Sept. 5, 1548) he made this new move. Other acts 
of ambition were charged against him, as well as of using his office of 
Lord High Admiral for privateering. He was beheaded on Tower Hill 
March 20, 1549, and though he was not worthy of much sympathy, 
public opinion was indignant against the heartlessness of his brother 
the Protector, and advantage was taken of it by the Catholic party to 
form a faction against him. He was accused, not unjustly, of accumu- 
lating vast riches by seizing property of the Church and Crown. A 
leader of the opposition to him was found in Dudley, Earl of Warwick. 
A meeting of his opponents was held in Ely Place in October 1549, with 
the result that the Tower was seized and Somerset was shut up in it. 
He was deposed from the Protectorate, and in February 1550 was par- 
doned and readmitted to the Privy Council. But in October 1551 he 
was again arrested on the charge of plotting to raise the country and 
murder Warwick. On this charge he was tried and beheaded on Tower 
Hill. He was the first Protestant ruler of England, " a rank Calvinist," 
and was, in fact, in close communication with Calvin. It was certainly 
his influence which led to the changes between the two English prayer- 
books of 1549 and 1552. His royal nephew, apparently, was, as Burnet 
puts it, " not greatly concerned " for him. This is his entry in his 
diary : " January 22, the Duke of Somerset had his head cut off upon 
Touer Hill between eight and nine a cloke in the morning." His fall 
involved the ruin of some of his principal supporters. Thus Sir Ralph 
Vane (or Fane; he belonged to the still existent Westmoreland family), 
though he had distinguished himself in the army, had offended the Duke 
of Northumberland. He was charged with complicity with Somerset 
and hid himself in a stable at Lambeth, but was arrested. Before the 
Privy Council he showed a bold front, and on his condemnation de- 
clared that his murder would make Northumberland's pillow uneasy. 
He was hanged, and the royal diary recording his " felony " and death 



IN THE TIME OF THE TUDOR KINGS 51 

adds that on his trial he " answered like a ruffian." Sir Miles Partridge 
was also hanged ; Sir Thomas Arundel and Sir Michael Stanhope were 
beheaded ; the Earl of Arundel, Lords Grey and Paget were acquitted. 
Edward VFs was a short reign, but a terrible amount of blood was 
shed on the scaffold, through the machinations of evil counsellors. 



CHAPTER V 

THE TUDOR QUEENS 

Grave Difficulties as to the Right of Succession Statement of the Various Claims 
Duke of Northumberland's Selfish Scheme Its Failure His Arrest and Execu- 
tion Lady Jane Grey Triumph of Mary Her Coronation Sir Thomas 
Wyatfs Rebellion Execution of Lady Jane and her Husband Execution of 
Duke of Suffolk and Sir Thomas Wyatt Accusation against the Princess Eliza- 
beth Her Imprisonment and Liberation Death of Mary and Accession of 
Elizabeth Her Coronation Religious Troubles Lord and Lady Hertford 
Plots in Favour of the Queen of Scots Hopes of the King of Spain Hatred of 
Spain in the English Nation Execution of the Duke of Norfolk, the First for 
Fourteen Tears Fresh Prisoners owing to the Jesuit Activity against the Queen 
Execution of the Queen of Scots at Fotheringhay, and Results Sir Walter 
Raleigh's Imprisonment and Liberation Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex His 
Prosperity, Folly, Downfall Death of the Queen. 

THERE had been no doubt about the succession when Henry VIII 
died. Jane Seymour, the mother of Edward, was Henry's lawful wife 
beyond question, for Queens Katharine and Anne were both dead 
when he married Jane. But on the death of Edward the matter looked 
very complicated in many eyes. Let us take the possible claimants 
in order. First, there were the two sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, who 
had both been declared illegitimate on the ground that their mothers 
had never been lawful wives. King Henry, it is true, in his later years, 
had received them as his daughters, and as possible heirs, though the 
Statute disqualifying them had not been repealed. Next, Henry VII 
had left two daughters. The elder, Margaret, married James IV of 
Scotland, who was killed at Flodden. His son, James V, was father of 
Mary Queen of Scots, but she was excluded from right of succession by 
the Alien Act, having been born on a foreign soil. But further, Mar- 
garet, within a year of King James's death, had married the Earl of 
Angus, and a wretched marriage it was. He had a wife already, but a 



THE TUDOR QUEENS S3 

papal brief decreed that, as she had married in good faith, her child 
Margaret was legitimate. 

Henry VIFs second daughter, Mary, married Louis XII of France, 
but he died in his honeymoon. She then married Charles Brandon, 
afterwards created Duke of Suffolk, he having a wife alive. Their 
eldest daughter, Frances, was given in marriage to Henry Grey, Mar- 
quis of Dorset, the greatgrandson of Sir John Grey, first husband of 
Elizabeth Woodville. Edward IV, on marrying her, made her son a 
peer. It is a miserable fact to have to record that the Marquis 
of Dorset, who now married the daughter of Brandon and Queen 
Mary, had put away his lawful wife in order to do so, the Lady 
Catherine FitzAlan, sister of the Earl of Arundel. No wonder that 
the latter, who had been an affectionate brother-in-law, became Dorset's 
fierce enemy, and nursed his wrath in secret. Grey was created 
Duke of Suffolk on account of his royal spouse, and perhaps thought 
that the injury he had done was forgotten in his prosperity. His 
wife Frances, a lady of amiable temper, brought him three daughters,, 
the eldest being the Lady Jane Grey, and out of all this crooked dealing 
came a great tragedy. 

The Duke of Northumberland, who had risen victorious over the 
Seymour family, and was apparently in the plenitude of power at King 
Edward's death, was an able, bold, and unprincipled man. He had 
wedded his fourth son, Lord Guildford Dudley, to the Lady Jane, and 
caused the dying Edward to declare her his legitimate successor. 
Obviously this was not the case, for her mother was yet alive, and would 
under any circumstances have had first claim. The poor girl was only 
sixteen years old. All accounts agree in making her both learned and 
amiable. She had no ambitions, but was told that duty lay upon her. 
The Duke for some hours kept the King's death secret, while he took 
measures for securing the person of Mary, and brought the Lady Jane 
to the Tower, and also a large number of influential peers, to swear 
homage to her. But the Londoners were silent, " not a single shout of 
welcome or Godspeed was raised as they passed through the silent 
crowd on their way to the Tower," writes Machyn in his diary. The 
Duke was hated for his arrogance, and the interference of France and 
Spain was to be looked for if Mary's rights were interfered with. And 



54 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Jane's husband, a poor, wretched, selfish creature, whined and sulked 
because he had expected to be declared King Consort. Northumber- 
land, having had Jane duly proclaimed, went forth to encounter Mary, 
and soon saw that the game was up. The fleet off Yarmouth had 
declared in Mary's favour, so had the soldiers which he had sent against 
her. And so in the street at Cambridge he threw his cap up in the air 
with the cry, " God save Queen Mary ! " But it availed him nothing. 
The Earl of Arundel, who had been forced by Northumberland to 
offer allegiance to Jane, but who waited his opportunity, came forward 
with a warrant for his arrest, signed by Mary, and on July 25, nineteen 
days after Edward's death, he was brought a prisoner to the Tower ; 
on August 1 8 he was tried and condemned for high treason in West- 
minster Hall, the Duke of Norfolk presiding as Lord High Sheriff. 
He was taken back to the Beauchamp Tower, and inscriptions which 
were cut by him and his sons may still be read on the walls. Gar- 
diner, Bishop of Winchester, had been a prisoner there under King 
Edward ; he was now restored to his dignity, and he paid a visit to 
Northumberland, who, in the hope of saving his life, declared himself 
a Catholic. Gardiner naturally took the opportunity ; Mass was 
celebrated in the White Tower Chapel, and the Duke received after 
making recantation. Next day he was beheaded on Tower Hill, still 
clinging desperately to the hope of life, and making profession all the 
way to the scaffold of the fervency of his faith. Sir John Gates and 
Sir Thomas Palmer, both implicated in the same treason, perished with 
him. 

Meanwhile the " nine days' reign " of the hapless Lady Jane was 
at an end. She was consigned to the Lieutenant's Lodging, called the 
King's House, and her husband to the Beauchamp Tower, where the 
one word " Jane," carved on the wall by him, is still to be seen. All 
through the month of September Jane was allowed to walk in the 
garden, and her husband and his brother Henry to promenade the 
outer walk on the wall which leads from the Beauchamp to the Bell 
Tower. 

Queen Mary was crowned with great splendour on October I. 
She was accompanied by her half-sister Elizabeth. 

On November 133 procession went forth from the Tower Gate to 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 55 

the Guildhall. First the Gentleman Chief Warder, carrying the axe, 
next Archbishop Cranmer, followed by Lord Guildford Dudley and 
Lady Jane, the last-named accompanied by two of her ladies. They 
were arraigned for high treason, the Lord Mayor presiding, with the 
Duke of Norfolk as High Sheriff. They pleaded guilty, received sen- 
tence, and were taken back to the Tower. 

It is possible that Mary may have had it in her mind to spare 
Lady Jane's life, but there came a new event, namely, Wyatt's ill- 
starred rising against the projected marriage of Queen Mary with 
Philip of Spain. The opinion of the nation was strongly against it, 
and Wyatt was certainly moved with an honest purpose. I would not 
venture to say as much for his fellow-conspirator, the Duke of Suffolk, 
Lady Jane's father, who probably renewed his hopes of setting his 
daughter on the throne. He undertook to head a rising in Leicester- 
shire, as Sir Peter Carew did in Devon. With the details of this un- 
happy expedition we have little to do here. Wyatt started from 
Maidstone, after publishing a declaration against the Queen's marriage, 
and advanced with a numerous force to Rochester, where he defeated 
the Duke of Norfolk and Sir Henry Jerningham, who had been sent 
against him. Then he moved on to Gravesend, where he was met by 
some members of the Privy Council, who exhorted him to make known 
his grievances in a less disorderly manner. He assented, provided 
" the custody of the Tower and the Queen within it " were entrusted 
to him. This condition being declined, he went on towards London. 
Mary was exhorted to take refuge in the Tower, but cowardice was not 
one of her faults ; she refused, and offered a reward of a hundred pounds 
a year to any man who would bring her Wyatt's head ; she also gave out 
to the citizens of London that she would not marry Philip if the match 
should be disagreeable to the nation. Wyatt, too, unappalled by his 
perilous situation, appeared at Southwark, opposite the Tower, fired 
upon it and was fired upon by the garrison, on both sides without 
effect, but the fact is to be noted as the last time in its history that the 
Tower was ever attacked. How he went on, crossed the river at King- 
ston, found himself more and more deserted, but still came forward 
with the courage of despair until he was captured between Temple 
Bar and Ludgate Hill, we all know. Now let Holinshed take up the 



56 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

narrative : " As for trie principals of this faction, Thomas Wyat, 
William Knevet, Thomas Cobham, two brethren named Mantells, 
and Alexander Bret, were brought by Sir Henry Jerningham by water 
to the Tower, prisoners, where Sir Philip R. Denny received them at 
the bulworke, and as Wyat passed he said : ' Go, traitor, there never was 
such a traitor in England ' ; to whom Sir Thomas Wyat turned and 
said, ' I am no traitor, I would thou shouldst well know that thou art 
more traitor than I, it is not the point of an honest man to call me so/ 
and so went forth. When he came to the Tower gate, Sir Thomas 
Bridges, the Lieutenant, took him through the wicket, first Mantell, 
and said, * Ah thou traitor, what hast thou and thy companie wrought." 
But he, holding downe his head, said nothing. Then came Thomas 
Knevet, whom Master Chambeleine, gentleman porter of the Tower, 
tooke in. Then came Alexander Bret, whome Sir Thomas Pope tooke 
by the bosome, saying, ' Oh traitor, how couldest thou find in thy 
heart to worke such a villanie, as to take wages, and being trusted ouer 
a band of men, to fall to hir enemies, returning against hir in battell.' 
Bret answered, * Yea I have offended in that case.' Then came 
Thomas Cobham, whome Sir Thomas Poines tooke in, and said, ' Alas, 
Maister Cobham, what wind headed you to worke such treason ' ; and 
he answered, ' Oh sir, I was seduced.' Then came in Sir Thomas 
Wyat, whom Sir John Bridges tooke by the collar and said, ' Oh thou 
villen and unhappie traitor, how couldest thou find in thy hart to 
worke such detestable treason to the queenes maiestie, who gaue thee 
thy life and liuing once alreadie, although thou diddest before this 
time beare armes in the field against hir and now to yeeld hir battell. 
If it were not (saith he) but that the lawe must passe upon thee, I 
would sticke thee through with my dagger.' To the which, Wyat 
holding his arms under his side, and looking grieuously with a grim 
looke upon the Lieutenant, said, ' It is no maisterie now ' ; and so 
passed on. Thomas Wyat had on a shirt of maile, with sleeues verie 
faire, thereon a veluet cassocke, and a yellow lace, with the windlace of 
his dag hanging thereon, and a paire of boots on his legs, and on his 
head a faire hat of veluet, with a broad bone worke lace about it. William 
Kneuet, Thomas Cobham, and Bret, were the like apparelled." 

Wyatt was confined in the first floor of the great keep, his adherents 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 57 

in the crypt beneath. It is hardly to be wondered at that this fixed the 
fate of poor Lady Jane. Her father was imprisoned on February 10. Two 
days before Feckenham, the Queen's confessor, afterwards Abbot of 
Westminster, was sent to bid her and her husband prepare for death, 
and to exhort them to embrace the Roman faith ; but on this point they 
were both firm in their refusal, and the I2th was fixed for the fatal 
day. It was originally intended that they should both die on Tower Hill, 
but the fear that Jane's beauty, simplicity, and sweetness would excite 
popular sympathy, induced the authorities to change the place of her 
suffering to the Tower Green. When Lord Guildford was told this he 
requested a final interview with her, but she declined it, lest it should 
change their constancy. On the day appointed he was led forth, and 
as he passed the window of " Master Partridge's House," where she was 
confined, she waved her farewell to him. At the Bulwark Gate, the 
sheriffs met him and conducted him to the scaffold, where he met his 
fate with firmness. The body was conveyed on a litter to the Tower 
Chapel, and Jane saw it on its way thither. " O Guildford, Guildford ! " 
said she, " the antepast is not so bitter that thou hast tasted, and which 
I shall soon taste, as to make my flesh tremble : it is nothing compared 
to the feast of which I shall partake this day in Heaven." When the 
Lieutenant of the Tower came to conduct her to her death, and asked 
her for some small present which he might keep in memory of her, she 
gave him her tablets on which she had just written three sentences, 
Latin, Greek, and English. At the scaffold she addressed the bystanders, 
protesting that she had erred through bad advice, in the belief that 
she was serving the interests of the country, and that she submitted to 
the consequences of her error without murmuring. She prayed fer- 
vently, and then but let us hear Holinshed once more " stood vp 
and gaue hir maid (called Mistress Ellin) her gloues and handkercher, 
and hir booke she also gaue to Maister Bridges, (brother of) the Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, and so untied hir gowne : and the executioner 
pressed to helpe hir off with it, but she desired him to let hir alone, 
and turned hir toward hir two gentlewomen, who helped hir off there- 
with, and with hir other attires, and they gaue hir a fair handkercher 
to put about hir eies. Then the executioner kneeled downe and asked 
hir forgiuenesse, whom she forgaue most willinglie. Then he willed 



58 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

hir to stand vpon the straw, which doone, she saw the blocke, and then 
she said, ' I pray you dispatch me quicklie.' Then she kneeled downe> 
saiing, * Will you take it off before I laie me downe ? ' Whereunto 
the executioner answered, ' No, Madame.' Then tied she the hand- 
kercher about hir eies, and, feeling for the blocke, she said, ' Where is 
it ? where is it ? ' One of the standers-by guided hir thereunto, and 
she laid downe hir head vpon the blocke, and then stretched forth hir 
bodie, and said, ' Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit,' and so 
finished hir life." 

Eleven days later her father, the Duke of Suffolk, was beheaded, and 
many other participators in the ill-concerted rebellion were also put to 
death ; three were hanged at Maidstone, three at Sevenoaks, more 
than fifty died in the City on the block or the gallows, the gates and 
London Bridge were disfigured with clusters of rotting heads, in several 
of the principal streets gibbets bore their ghastly burdens in chains, 
and the air was tainted far and wide. In the midst of this time Mary 
was married to Philip at Winchester. 

Wyatt, who was put to death on April II, had used some expres- 
sions which were held to implicate, among others, the Princess Elizabeth. 
The latter was lying sick, in semi-custody, at Ashridge in Herts, and a 
strong guard was sent to escort her to London, which performed its 
duty so zealously as to force admission into her bed-chamber. She 
was brought, in spite of her remonstrances, by easy stages to London? 
and remained for a fortnight in close confinement at Whitehall, and 
was then conveyed to the Tower. Her angry protestations made a 
scene as she was landed at Traitors' Gate on Palm Sunday, that day 
being fixed upon because the citizens were strictly ordered to Church, 
and it was feared that popular disaffection would be exhibited if the 
Princess was conducted through the city. Whilst in the Tower, her 
confinement was of the most rigid character ; the Mass, though offen- 
sive to her, was constantly said in her apartment ; at first she was not 
allowed to pass the threshold of her room, and when afterwards she 
obtained the privilege, through the intercession of Lord Chandos, she 
was constantly attended by the Lieutenant and Constable of the Tower, 
with a guard. " Queen Elizabeth's Walk " is still the name of the 
path she daily promenaded. She was frequently examined by the 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 59 

Council, but nothing against her could be found, and Wyatt with his 
dying breath declared her innocence. On May 19 she was liberated 
from the Tower, and conveyed, under the charge of Sir Henry Beding- 
field, to Woodstock. In the old London Tavern in Leadenhall Street 
is preserved a heavy pewter meat dish and cover, which it is said 
was used at the meal which she took after leaving the Tower. And 
there is another tradition that the bells of some of the city churches 
were joyously rung on her release, and that to these churches on her 
accession she gave silken bell-ropes. 

There still remained many prisoners in the Tower who had been 
concerned in the Lady Jane attempt and Wyatt's subsequent rebellion. 
A large number of these were now released. The Earl of Warwick 
and his three brothers, Ambrose, Robert and Dudley, were in the 
Beauchamp Tower, but the Earl died in October, 1554, an( ^ ^ s brothers 
were liberated next year. There was a strong desire to win popular 
favour and make the Spanish marriage less unpopular. The Arch- 
bishop of York, who had been imprisoned for refusing to attend Queen 
Mary's coronation, and some twenty other knights and gentlemen were 
set free. 

With the religious persecutions which followed for three years and 
a half we have no concern here. There was one more rising against the 
increasing authority of the Spaniards ; Thomas, the second son of Lord 
Stafford, landed at Scarborough and took the castle, but was defeated 
by the Earl of Westmoreland, and a large number of prisoners were 
brought to the Tower. Stafford was beheaded on Tower Hill, and the 
others were hanged at Tyburn. Queen Mary died on November 17, 
1558, and the accession of Elizabeth was certainly hailed with joy by 
the English nation. 

Elizabeth was at Hatfield when her sister died. On November 28 
she came to London, and entered, amidst general acclamations, the 
fortress where she had been so rigorously imprisoned. It is no wonder 
if it found no charms for her ; on December 5 she retired first to 
Somerset House, then to Whitehall, where she remained until the eve 
of her coronation, when she came back to the Tower again. The 
procession from hence to the Abbey was more splendid than any that 
had been recorded. Seated in an open chariot all glittering with gold, 



60 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

herself blazing with jewels, she was carried through streets strewn with 
flowers, with banners and tapestry on the houses, the conduits running 
wine, and the city companies manning the streets in their gorgeous 
liveries. A young woman called Deborah stood under a palm-tree in 
Fleet Street, and prophesied great prosperity to the nation. 

Though the horrors of the stake were at an end, religious perse- 
cution was not ; and the Tower seldom appears in the reign of Elizabeth 
save as a State prison. The Reformers were only too ready to retaliate 
on the Roman party, and so the Bishop of Winchester (Gardiner), who 
had rendered himself obnoxious under Mary, was soon in durance 
here, and was followed by the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Ely, 
Lincoln, Worcester, Exeter, and Bath, and by Feckenham, Abbot of 
Westminster, and other Church dignitaries, for denying the Queen's 
supremacy. 

And there were fresh prisoners of State. Lady Catherine Grey, 
one of Elizabeth's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Jane's sister, married in 1560 
Lord Hertford, eldest son of the Duke of Somerset, but secretly, as it 
was known that the Queen would not approve of the match. He was 
twenty-two, and she twenty. The young people walked from White- 
hall to Lord Hertford's house in Fleet Street, and here the marriage 
took place, though they could not remember the name of the minister 
who thus clandestinely united them. When in due time the union 
could no longer be concealed they were in a terrible fright, Lady 
Catherine being of near kin to the Queen. Lord Hertford could not 
face her majesty's anger, and fled across sea, leaving his poor wife to 
do the best she could for herself. This was not much, for when she 
threw herself at her royal mistress's feet and begged for pardon, 
Elizabeth in a fury sent her off to the Tower, where, soon after, her 
child was born. 1 Lord Hertford, returning to England, was sent also, 

1 In the wardrobe accounts in the British Museum (Lansdowne MSS., No. V., Art. 41, 
the furniture of Lady Catherine's prison-room is catalogued. " There were five pieces of 
tapestry for hanging the chamber ; three window-pieces of the like stuff ; a sparver for a 
bed, of changeable silk damask ; a silk quilt of red striped with gold ; a bed and bolster of down 
with two pillows of down ; one white linen quilt stuffed with wool ; four pairs of fustians ; 
two Turkey carpets ; one small window carpet ; one chair of cloth of gold raised with crim- 
son velvet, with two pannels of copper gilt and the Queen's arms on the back ; one cushion 
of purple velvet ; two footstools covered with green velvet ; one cupboard joined ; one bed, 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 61 

and remained there many a long year, in the deeper disgrace because 
he could produce no proof of his marriage. He was separated from 
her, but bribed the keepers and gained access to her chamber, the 
result of which was the birth of another child. Elizabeth, we need 
hardly say, was more furious than ever ; she declared, and probably 
thought, that there had been no marriage, dismissed summarily the 
Lieutenant, Warner, and had Hertford brought before the Star Cham- 
ber, where he was fined .15,000 and sent back to his prison, where he 
lay for nine years longer. During that time Lady Catherine died 
(1567). After his liberation he married again, but proved the validity 
of his first marriage in 1606 by discovering the minister who had per- 
formed it (Collins's Peerage). 

The Earl of Lennox was imprisoned in 1561, on suspicion of 
privately corresponding with the Queen of Scots, but was released 
next year. His wife, however, being a near kinswoman of Elizabeth, 
was continually suspected by her, and was imprisoned three times, 
" not for any crime of treason," says Camden, " but for love matters ; 
first when Thomas Howard, son of the first Duke of Norfolk of that 
name, falling in love with her, was imprisoned and died in the Tower 
of London ; then for the love of Henry, Lord Darnley, her son, to 
Mary, Queen of Scots ; and lastly for the love of Charles, her younger 
son, to Elizabeth Cavendish, mother to the Lady Arabella, with whom 
the Queen of Scots was accused to have made up the match." In the 
King's House there is an inscription in one of the rooms recording the 
second of these imprisonments. 

The struggle between Elizabeth and the Queen of Scots was long 
and fierce. Before it closed on the scaffold at Fotheringhay, February, 
1587, it had brought many prisoners to the Tower. Among the earliest 
were two more members of the Pole family, Arthur and Edmund, 
great grandchildren of the Duke of Clarence. They were imprisoned 
in the Beauchamp Tower in 1562 on the charge of conspiring to set 
Mary Stuart on the English throne. Inscriptions on the wall may still 

one bolster "and a counterpane for her woman." But some marginal notes in the handwriting 
of Sir Edward Warner, the Lieutenant of the Tower, state that it was all old, worn, broken 
and decayed, and another letter of his to Cecil in the same collection of MSS. says that the 
Lady Catherine did further injury to this furniture with her monkeys and her dogs. 



62 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

be seen, bearing their names. There can be no question that Eliza- 
beth's position was one of great danger. England was half ruined 
when she came to the throne no army, no fleet, a huge debt, and the 
whole country containing a population less than that of London to-day. 
And Spain was rich and populous, with the finest army and navy in 
the world. Philip expected England to buy his support against her 
neighbour, France, by becoming a dependency of Spain. But he 
misjudged not only the courage of the Queen, but the indomitable 
determination of her nation. They had had enough of Spain. Un- 
justly, no doubt, they attributed all the miseries and disasters of Mary's 
reign to the Spanish alliance, and it was the special feature which so 
wonderfully marked the reign of Elizabeth that her people rallied 
round her in the hour of danger as people had never done to a sovereign 
before. We have to bear this in mind when thinking of the high- 
handed doings of Burleigh and the astute diplomacies of Walsingham. 
A suspicion of conspiracy was a most serious matter then. In 1569 
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, son of the ill-fated Surrey, was 
brought in on the charge of high treason, his overt act being the pro- 
posal to wed the Queen of Scots. Others implicated in the conspiracy 
to place Mary on thejthrone were the Earls of Arundel and Southampton, 
Lord Lumley, Lord Cobham, and his brother Thomas. A batch of 
letters, written by an Italian banker named Ridolfi, resident in London, 
on the same business, got into the hands of the government, with the 
result that a fresh haul of prisoners was brought in. They furnished 
evidence that the Duke of Alva was laying plans for the murder of 
Elizabeth, prior to Norfolk's marriage with Mary. These prisoners 
were distributed in the various towers, and a young man named Charles 
Bailly, who was seized at Dover with a number of treasonable letters 
in his possession, was placed in the Tower, and under torture gave 
evidence against many prisoners. There are several inscriptions by 
him in the Beauchamp Tower. The Duke of Norfolk was beheaded 
on Tower Hill June 2, 1579, the first execution therefor fourteen years. 
The old scaffold had become rotten, and a new one was set up for the 
occasion. John Leslie, Bishop of Ross, when put on his trial for the 
same crime, pleaded that, being an ambassador, he was not amenable 
to criminal trial. And on this plea he was put back, kept prisoner for 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 63 

two years longer, and then dismissed the kingdom, to which he never 
returned. Some more executions took place, and a great many cul- 
prits were fined and set at liberty. 

For the next few years the Tower held but few captives. Peter 
Burchet, a member of the Middle Temple, was committed in October, 
1573, for attempting to murder Hawkins, the celebrated admiral, whom 
he mistook for the Chancellor Hatton. During his confinement, he 
struck to death a man left in charge of him, who was quietly reading 
the Bible at the window. His hand was first struck off for striking a 
blow in a royal palace, after which he was hanged at Temple Bar. In 
1577 a gentleman named Sherin was drawn on a hurdle from hence to 
Tyburn and hanged for denying the Queen's supremacy, and six others 
were carried to Norwich for the like fate for coining. 

But it was in 1580 that the cells again became filled with Roman 
Catholic prisoners. It is easy to account for this. The breach with 
Rome was complete ; the Papal Bull had been issued for the dethrone- 
ment of Elizabeth, and the newly-established Order of Jesuits was 
sending forth its missionaries to carry out the decree. And so it was 
war to the knife. Thus, in June 1580, we have William and Robert 
Tyrwhitt sent to the Tower for attending Mass at their sister's marri- 
age ; the Archbishop of Armagh, the Earls of Kildare and Clanricarde, 
with other nobles, for being concerned in the Earl of Desmond's in- 
surrection in Ireland ; and before the year, was out, six Catholic priests 
and three laymen are added. Next year it appears as if a system of 
torture was established ; some were confined in " Little Ease," a 
dungeon twenty feet below the level, in which they could neither stand 
upright nor lie down at length ; some were racked, some placed in the 
" Scavenger's Daughter," an iron instrument which held bound the 
head, hands and feet. Add to these the thumbscrew and the boot. 
The most conspicuous prisoner in 1581 was Father Campion, an elo- 
quent Jesuit who had worked hard to raise sedition in various parts of 
the country. He was dragged off with two other seminary priests to 
ignominious death, so were seven more priests that year ; in 1583 a 
Warwickshire gentleman named Somerville strangled himself to avoid 
the ghastly dismemberment, but his father-in-law Arden suffered it. In 
1584 five seminary priests suffered, as did Francis, the eldest son of Sir 



64 THE 'TOWER OF LONDON 

John Throckmorton, convicted of treasonable correspondence with 
the Queen of Scots. In January, 1585, a clearance was made of those 
prisoners charged with religious offences, and twenty-one of them were 
shipped off to France. But their places were occupied by others, 
charged with complicity with the treasonable practices of Throckmorton. 
Among them were the Earls of Northumberland and Arundel. The 
former killed himself in the Tower to prevent that bitch, as he called 
the Queen, from getting possession of his estates by his attainder. 
Arundel was tried and condemned to death in 1589, but Elizabeth 
delayed the execution, though she gave very strict orders about his 
confinement. He might " walk in the Queen's garden two hours in 
the day, with a servant of the Lieutenant's to attend him, the garden 
door being shut at the time of his walking." This severity, coupled 
with the strictest religious austerities which he constantly practised, 
hastened his death (Nov. 19, 1595). A memorial of his piety, graven 
with his own hand, may be seen in the Beauchamp Tower. William 
Parry, instigated from Rome, arranged with Edmund Neville to shoot 
the Queen when she was out riding. But the Earl of Westmoreland 
died in exile. Neville was his next heir, and hoped that by revealing 
the plot he might recover the forfeited estates. The result was that 
Parry died a traitor's death and Neville was kept close prisoner for many 
years. Many prisoners were brought in in 1586, charged with being 
concerned in Babington's conspiracy. So was Davison, the Secretary 
of State, who was charged with sending the warrant for the death of 
the Queen of Scots without Elizabeth's sanction. This is generally 
considered to have been a crafty device of the Queen to screen herself 
from the odium. He exculpated himself, but was kept in the Tower, 
and ruinously fined by the Star Chamber. In 1598 Sir John Perrot, 
the Lord Deputy of Ireland, whose righteous endeavours had done 
much to restore tranquillity to that country, having incurred the enmity 
of Lord Chancellor Hatton, was recalled home and sent to the Tower 
on a charge of treason. He was a hot-tempered man, and had used 
some disrespectful words against the Queen. This was the only charge 
proved against him, but on it he was condemned. On being conveyed 
to the Tower he said to the Lieutenant in great anger that the Queen 
was " suffering her brother to be offered up as a sacrifice to his strutting 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 65 

adversaries." He was said to be an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII. 
Whether or not, when this speech was reported to the Queen, she re- 
fused to sign the warrant for his execution, and declared that his accusers 
were all knaves. He died in the Tower six months afterwards, broken- 
hearted. 

An illustrious name comes before us in the annals of I59 2 - Sir 
Walter Raleigh was lodged here, having incurred the Queen's displeas- 
ure by his amour with Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Nicholas Throck- 
morton, the celebrated statesman. He soon regained his liberty, 
however, by using the most fulsome adulation of his royal mistress. 
Here is just one specimen, an extract from a letter which he wrote to 
Cecil, of course in order that it might be shown to her Majesty : 
" My heart was never broken till this day, that I hear the Queen goes 
away so far off [she was about to start on her annual progress], whom I 
have followed so many years with so great love and desire in so many 
journeys, and am now left behind her in a dark prison, all alone. While 
she was yet near at hand, that I might hear of her once in two or three 
days, my sorrows were the less, but even now my heart is cast into the 
depth of all misery. I, that was wont to behold her riding like Alex- 
ander, hunting like Diana, walking like Venus, the gentle wind blowing 
her fair hair about her pure face like a nymph, sometimes sitting in the 
shade like a goddess, sometimes singing like an angel, sometimes playing 
like Orpheus." 

Elizabeth was always open to flattery, but in this case her " love- 
stricken swain " was further assisted by the arrival at Dartmouth of his 
good ship The Roebuck, which had taken a great Spanish treasure ship off 
Flores, with a treasure which Raleigh estimated at half a million pounds. 
The Queen gave him his liberty and sent him off to arrange the disposal 
of his capture, and of course got the lion's share of it. He returned to 
Court fresh as ever, and this return was a fatal event in the fortunes of 
another brilliant courtier, in fact the most brilliant, of Elizabeth's 
surrounding, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. He and Raleigh were 
bitter enemies. Ireland was again giving trouble. Raleigh advised 
that the disturbers should remorselessly be trampled out, Essex that 
justice and good- will should be shown. The discussion between them 
was firm on both sides, and when we remember that both men were high- 

F 



66 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

spirited, full of ambition, jealous of each other as to the royal favour, we 
can understand how their selfwill and egotism proved the ruin of them 
both. Essex was strikingly handsome, brilliant both at Court and in 
the field. His father had been a personal friend of the Queen, the 
Earl of Leicester was his step-father, Sir Francis Knollys his grandfather, 
Walsingham his father-in-law, Lord Burleigh his guardian, Shakespeare 
his friend. He was now sent to Ireland with the task before him of 
subduing the factions which kept the country in continual insurrection, 
and he failed, whilst his enemies traduced him at home. Enraged at 
learning this, and in despair at his continued illfortune, he returned 
after two years to England unbidden, hoping to justify his actions in 
the presence of the Queen. But several charges of misconduct were 
proved against him, and he was deprived of his offices and banished from 
Court. The Queen had said that an unruly horse must be kept short 
of provender, and when this was repeated to him he retorted that the 
Queen's mind was as crooked as her body, and it is difficult to imagine 
a speech which would anger her more. Then, instigated by his secre- 
tary, Cuffe, he formed the desperate resolution of breaking in upon the 
Court, removing by force the courtiers, and so ruling the Queen by 
force. A terrible blunder to make. He was perhaps the most popular 
noble in London, but the citizens had no idea of imperilling their lives 
and fortunes by countenancing such a harum-scarum idea as this. 
Nobody came to his call, and after a short siege in his own house in the 
Strand he was captured, along with the Earl of Southampton, and con- 
veyed through the fatal Traitors' Gate. This was on February 6, 1601 ; 
on the I9th he was adjudged a traitor, and on the 25th beheaded. The 
execution took place within the Tower, some say because Essex was so 
popular that there was a fear of a demonstration in his favour if it had 
been on Tower Hill, others that it was his own wish to die within the 
walls. He was buried in St. Peter's Chapel. He was only thirty-five 
years of age ! There is a story that the Queen expected a ring which 
he was to send her when in trouble, and which was to win him forgive- 
ness ; that he had entrusted it to Lady Nottingham, who kept it back ; 
but this story is certainly untrue. Elizabeth, as one can quite under- 
stand, was unwilling to sign the warrant, considering the favour in which 
she had once held him, and after its execution she fell into a terrible fit 



THE TUDOR QUEENS 67 

of despondency, from which in fact she never recovered. Raleigh, who 
was never popular with the Londoners, was hooted in the streets for 
his enmity towards Essex, so was Bacon as one of his judges. Four of 
Essex's fellow-conspirators were beheaded ; Cuffe was hanged at 
Tyburn. Southampton was kept in close confinement, but liberated 
by special command of James I in 1603. Essex's son, born 1593, lived 
to lead the Parliamentary army against Charles I. 

Sad enough are the accounts of the last days of the great Queen, 
her loneliness and terror. No doubt the nature of her disease produced 
fits of delirium. She seemed to have no one near her to whom she 
could look for a loving or tender word. But she was a great monarch, 
and under her rule England rose out of weakness, confusion, distraction. 
Elizabeth'had triumphed over all|her enemies. Her bitterest foe, Philip 
of Spain, had gone to his grave five years before her, but not until he 
had seen his " Invincible Armada " beaten all to pieces. England was 
now in the first rank of the nations. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE STUARTS 

'James /, arrival at the lower Lady Arabella Stuart George Brooke Sir Walter 
Raleigh His Liberation Fresh Imprisonment Execution The Gunpowder 
Plot Sir Thomas Overbury Carr, Earl of Somerset Ascendency of Bucking- 
ham Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex Charles I His Avoidance of the Tower 
Sir John Eliot Felton, Assassin of Buckingham Lord Loudoun Earl of 
Strafford Archbishop Laud Tower passes into power of Parliament when the 
Civil War begins Imprisonments under the Commonwealth Lord Capel The 
Restoration Execution of the Regicides Filliers, Second Duke of Buckingham 
Colonel Blood's Attempt to Steal the Crown The Mystery of his Pardon 
Titus Oates Lord Stafford The Rye House Plot Accession of James 
II The Duke of Monmouth The Seven Bishops Bevis Skelton Judge 
Jeffrey William and Mary, only one Execution in the Tower all the Reign 
But many Prisoners. 

WHEN King James arrived^ from Scotland he took up his residence 
and held his first Court in the Tower, but the plague was in London 
and there was no procession to Westminster at his Coronation, though 
the Londoners had made preparations for it. At the close of the year 
(1603) a conspiracy to place the crown on the head of Lady Arabella 
Stuart caused the imprisonment of many eminent men, among them 
Henry Brooke, Lord Cobham, his brother George Brooke, Thomas, 
Lord Grey of Wilton, and Sir Walter Raleigh. Lady Arabella was the 
daughter of Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox, Darnley's brother, and 
was therefore King James's first cousin ; she was also, as we have already 
had occasion to note, related to the Tudors, and this double relation- 
ship was the great misfortune of her life. At the trial of Lord Cobham 
it was clearly proved that she had no share in the scheme to make her 
queen. She had had many suitors, Henry IV of France and the Arch- 
duke Mathias of Austria among them, but had fallen in love with 
William Seymour, grandson of the Earl of Hertford, and for this Queen 
Elizabeth had kept her in close confinement. In 1609 King James 



THE STUARTS 69 

heard that she was about to marry some foreign prince ; his jealousy 
was aroused, and he sent her to the Tower, but finding that his fears 
were groundless, he gave his consent to her marrying one of his sub- 
jects. She took him at his word, and married Seymour. In wrath 
the king sent her to Lambeth Palace as prisoner, and her husband to 
the Tower. From Lambeth she was ordered to Durham, to be under 
the Bishop, but at Highgate pleaded illness and remained there, and 
planned an escape for herself and husband. She obtained a male dis- 
guise and got to Blackwall, where her husband was to meet her, he 
having got out of the Tower by dressing like a labourer and following 
a cart of firewood. When he reached the appointed meeting-place he 
found that Arabella had sailed away in a French boat. He could not 
follow her, as the wind was against him, and he had to go to Ostend. 
Meanwhile an alarm was raised, Arabella was pursued, caught in mid- 
strait, and brought back to the Tower, which she never left again 
until her death, September 25, 1615. She had been for some years 
insane. She is buried beside Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster 
Abbey. Her husband survived her for nearly fifty years, and married 
a second wife, a sister of the famous Parliamentary general, the Earl 
of Essex, son of Queen Elizabeth's Essex. In 1660 he became Duke 
of Somerset, and lived just long enough to welcome Charles II. 

But in following Arabella's fortunes I have greatly anticipated. 
We must go back to the conspiracy. George Brooke and two priests 
were the first to be tried and executed. His brother, Lord Cobham, 
and Lord Grey de Wilton were also condemned and actually brought 
out to be executed, but a respite had been previously signed, and it 
was produced at the block in a coup de theatre. They were sent back 
to their prison, and for fifteen years longer Cobham lay in confinement. 
Then, his health failing, he was allowed to visit Bath in the custody 
of gaolers, after which he returned to his prison. Whether he died in 
the Tower or was allowed, as some accounts imply, to retire to an 
obscure house in the Minories, is uncertain. He died in January, 1619. 
There was much underhand dealing about his estates and those of his 
brother, by which Cecil gained possession of the greater part of them; 
and this entered into the soul of William Brooke, George's son, who 
became one of the most determined foes of Charles I, and died fighting 



70 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

against him at Newbury. Lord Grey of Wilton, a brilliant young 
man who might have served his country well, languished in the Brick 
Tower till his death in 1617. 

Again disregarding contemporary events for awhile, we take up the 
history of Sir Walter Raleigh. He was detained for twelve years, 
mostly in the Bloody Tower, in rooms not uncomfortably furnished, 
was allowed two servants, and his wife and son could visit him. He 
had also the liberty of the garden which lay between his prison and the 
lieutenant's house, and in it he constructed a little room for chemical 
experiments. And during this time he wrote his History of the World. 
In conception it was a colossal book, but he only completed his plan 
as far as the end of the second Macedonian war. It is a torso, one of 
the most wonderful books in literature, a great folio, very scarce ; in 
fact, hardly ever to be seen except in old libraries, but full of learning, 
wit, shrewdness, when you get the opportunity of perusing it. In the 
early days of his captivity Sir George Harvey was lieutenant of the 
Tower. They were personal friends, and Raleigh often spent the 
evening with him. But when Harvey was succeeded by Sir William 
Wade things were changed. The new lieutenant had a personal dislike 
to Raleigh, and seems to have taken much trouble to curtail his privi- 
leges and make his life irksome. Henry, Prince of Wales, was partial 
to him, and frequently visited him, and the queen is said to have 
entreated the king to set him free. But James personally disliked him ; 
partly, it is said, because he had heard that Raleigh made jests on his 
ugly face and uncouth gestures and accent. But, further, he was 
hated by Spain for his labours to make the English fleet the most 
powerful on the seas, to extend the English colonial possessions, and 
destroy the Spanish supremacy ; and the Spanish ambassador, Gondomar, 
was the most powerful minister at the English court. Prince Henry 
died in 1612, a heavy loss to Raleigh, but he got his liberty in 1616 by 
bribing Villiers, who went to the king and roused his cupidity by 
explaining that if Raleigh were allowed to make a fresh expedition to 
the West Indies he might gather great spoils, the lion's share of which 
would go to the king. And so the warrant for his liberation was signed 
in March, 1616, at the time when Shakespeare was dying at Stratford- 
on-Avon. The wretched king at the same time not only gave a pledge 



THE STUARTS 71 

to Gondomar that if Raleigh touched any Spanish person or property 
he would hand him over to the Spanish Government to be hanged at 
Seville, but also showed him a private letter of Raleigh, stating the 
exact number of his ships and men, as well as the spot on the banks of 
the Orinoco where he expected to find a great silver mine. As the 
Spaniards claimed the whole of that territory, the vileness of the 
treachery becomes apparent. He started from Plymouth in March, 
1617, with fourteen ships and nine hundred men. Continual disaster 
is the summary of the expedition. His eldest son was killed fighting 
gallantly in Guiana. In August, 1818, he returned a ruined man, and 
was again lodged in the Tower. The king was burning to get rid of 
him, but what should the pretext be ? The Council of State was in 
uttermost perplexity. Bacon advised acting on the former sentence. 
Raleigh pleaded that the commission sending him to America was a 
reversal of that sentence both in law and reason, but the Lord Chief 
Justice Montagu gave his judicial opinion that it held good, and so 
on October 24 the warrant was signed, and on the 29th he was beheaded 
in Old Palace Yard. 

Again we have to retrace our steps. In 1604 the penal laws against 
the Roman Catholics were re-enacted. On November 5, 1605, Guy 
Fawkes was seized in the vaults of the Houses of Parliament and con- 
veyed to the Tower, as were also Thomas and Robert Winter, Robert 
Keyes, Thomas Oates, John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Sir 
Everard Digby. They were placed in the dungeons beneath the 
White Tower. The room is still shown in the King's House in which 
Guy was brought before the Council of State. And, moreover, in 
the subterranean dungeon are the bases of the rack on which he was 
tortured He is said to have been kept in " Little Ease " for fifty 
days. He was put to death, along with Thomas Winter, Rook- 
wood and Keyes, in Old Palace Yard on January 31, 1606. Digby, 
Rookwood and Keyes suffered the same horrible death in Old Palace 
Yard. 

But there were other persons who were implicated and brought in 
prisoners, of whom some account must be given, among them Henry 
Percy, the aged Earl of Northumberland, Lords Mordaunt and Stourton, 
and three Jesuit priests, Garnet, Oldcorne, and Gerard. Northumber- 



72 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

land had to pay an enormous fine and remained a prisoner here for 
sixteen years ; Mordaunt and Stourton were also heavily fined and kept 
in durance. Fathers Garnet and Oldcorne were put to death in the 
usual horrible manner, one in St. Paul's Churchyard, the other at 
Worcester. With Gerard it was different. He was questioned in the 
King's House about Garnet's knowledge of the plot and refused to 
answer, whereupon he was taken into the subterranean chamber and 
hung up by his wrists, he being a heavy man. In this position he was 
pressed with questions for an hour, and several times fainted. When 
he still refused to open his mouth Wade, the lieutenant, cried out in 
a rage, " Hang there, then, till you rot." However, when the tolling 
from the Bell Tower gave notice to the Commissioners to quit the 
fortress for the day, the poor priest was suffered to crawl to his prison 
room at the top of the Salt Tower. Next day the same torture was 
renewed, and when he fainted he was restored by having vinegar poured 
down his throat. It was of no use, and he was again carried back to 
his prison, where he lay fifty days. Another Roman Catholic named 
Arden was confined in the Cradle Tower, some hundred feet off ; 
they could see one another, and could even exchange a few words across 
the Privy Garden. Gerard persuaded his gaoler to let Arden visit 
him, and they planned an escape. They wrote a letter with orange 
juice, which is invisible until it is subjected to a process known to the 
initiated, and got it sent to co-religionists outside, who came opposite 
with a boat, and to them the prisoners threw a thin cord across the 
moat by means of a leaden weight attached to it. The boatmen fastened 
a stout rope to this, and it was hauled up and made fast within'the 
chamber, and down it the two men " swarmed," though Gerard was 
in agony from his swollen arms. But they succeeded and got away 
safely, Gerard to Rome, where he wrote a full account of his trial and 
escape. 

We pass on to one of the foulest records in the history of our great 
fortress. Thomas Overbury, the son of a judge, was sent by his father 
" on a voyage of pleasure " to Edinburgh in 1601, and there made 
acquaintance, which ripened into intimate friendship, with one Robert 
Carr, page to the Earl of Dunbar. On the accession of King James 
to the English throne he showed Carr great favour, and brought him 



THE STU4RTS 73 

to London. Carr, conscious of his own defective education and train- 
ing, leaned much on Overbury's ability, who thus to some extent 
shared his prosperity and was knighted in 1608. Carr was made 
Earl of Rochester in 1610. Their intimacy continued so close 
that men about court cringed to Overbury with a view to gaining 
Rochester's favour, but now came a bitter feud. Rochester involved 
himself in a liaison with the Countess of Essex, a woman of altogether 
abandoned character, and she obtained a divorce with a view of 
marrying Rochester. But against this marriage Overbury raised an 
indignant protest, and entreated his friend to abandon the idea. 
Rochester resented his interference, and the countess in wrath excited 
him to retaliate. Rochester hesitated probably Overbury was in 
possession of secrets which it was not desirable to bring out and tried 
to persuade him to accept a diplomatic appointment abroad. He 
steadily refused all offers, and the Earl of Northampton, the countess's 
uncle, who was keen for the match, persuaded the king, who was already 
prejudiced against Overbury, to send him to the Tower, on a charge 
of having spoken disrespectfully of the queen. Rochester regarded 
this imprisonment as a temporary expedient only ; but far other was 
the idea of the countess. After making one or two proposals to officers 
to assassinate Overbury, she procured the dismissal of Wade from the 
governorship, and put in a tool of her own, Sir Gervase Helwys, by 
whose management the wretched captive was slowly and skilfully 
poisoned, September 15, 1613, three months and seventeen days after 
his first committal. A few weeks later Rochester was created Earl of 
Somerset. Nearly two years later a boy in the employment of one 
of the apothecaries revealed the crime. Investigations were made and 
proofs were abundantly forthcoming. Helwys and the attendants 
were hanged. The Earl of Northampton, it was clearly proved, had 
been an accomplice, but he had died. The Earl and Countess of 
Somerset were arrested, tried and convicted in May, 1616, but were 
pardoned and released from the Tower in 1621. Public opinion was 
much outraged ; there were demonstrations in the streets, and it was 
even broadly intimated that King James must have been privy to the 
murder. There was a tradition that Mrs. Turner, one of the principal 
agents employed in this crime by Lady Essex, appeared at her trial 



74 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

in a stiffened ruff which was all the fashion, and which we constantly 
see in portraits of that time, and in the same decoration was hanged 
(March, 1615), the result being that these ruffs immediately went out 
of fashion. 

There were other occupants of the Tower during the reign of 
James I, and the records are miserable enough ; intrigues and plots 
among rival aspirants to power frequently ended in imprisonment of 
the defeated. The rise of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, is 
undoubtedly a notable fact of the ignoble reign, but can only be 
touched upon here as connected with the imprisonment of Sir John 
Eliot, Sir Edward Coke, and Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex. 
Cranfield, a creation of Buckingham, was one of the foremost accusers 
of Bacon for corrupt practices. He had been made Master of the 
Wardrobe and Lord High Treasurer. He was convicted of robbing 
the magazine of arms, of pocketing bribes and selling offices, and of 
making false entries of the royal debts. He was condemned to pay a 
fine of .50,000, and to be imprisoned for life. He was released, 
however, in a few weeks, lived in retirement for the rest of his life, 
and remained neutral during the Civil War. He died in 1645. Two 
sons in succession succeeded him, after which the family became ex- 
tinct. 

The schemes and intrigues concerning the proposed marriage of 
Charles with the Infanta of Spain and the tortuous policy of the Duke 
of Buckingham have not come within our scope. But it has to be 
noted that Sir John Eliot, who had by reason of his great ability been 
appointed Vice-Admiral of Devon, had got into trouble during 
Buckingham's absence in Spain, by arresting a notorious pirate named 
Nutt, who was under the secret patronage of Calvert, the Secretary 
of State, and Eliot was sent to prison on false charges. He was liberated 
after some months and got a seat in Parliament in 1624, where he almost 
immediately displayed remarkable power of oratory. Buckingham 
had now broken with Spain, and in this Eliot heartily went with him, 
but his feeling was altogether based upon the rights of the House of 
Commons and the popular feeling against any Spanish alliance. He 
was one of the leaders also of the impeachment of the Earl of Middlesex. 
Soon there appeared serious signs of his divergence from the king's 



THE STUARTS 75 

policy. He was no Puritan, having a strong antipathy to Calvinism ; 
but he urged enforcement of the recusancy laws against the Roman 
Catholics, because religion " made distractions among men." As Mr. 
Gardiner puts it, his creed was " the monarchy of man. . . . There 
must be unity and purity of faith, and that faith must be one which 
brought man face to face with his Maker " (vol. v., p. 343). In those 
same early days he was in conflict with another man who was to become 
one of the most prominent politicians of his day Thomas Wentworth, 
presently Lord Stratford. Wentworth too, according to his light, was 
a patriot. He was sincerely desirous for the prosperity of the country, 
but held that strength is the essence of good government, had a con- 
tempt for constitutional forms, and in his arrogance, knowing his own 
good intentions, paid no respect to those who opposed him. Eliot 
stood at the opposite pole. Parliament was to him the voice and the 
majesty of the nation. He earnestly and strenuously opposed the 
entrance of Wentworth into the House of Commons, on the ground 
that his election had been a forced one and was a sham : and he carried 
his point. 

Further alienation followed. Buckingham's war with Spain was a 
failure. Eliot, after some hesitation on account of old friendship, spoke 
bitterly against him in King Charles' first Parliament of 1626 ; an im- 
peachment followed, of which Eliot was one of the managers, and for 
this the king sent him and Sir Dudley Digges to the Tower. But 
the cleavage between king and parliament had grown serious ; the 
Commons refused to proceed to business until their members were 
freed, and it was done, but he was dismissed from offices which he held. 
The third parliament met in 1628, and again Eliot spoke against 
Buckingham and against arbitrary taxation, and it was mainly by his 
energy that the Petition of Right was carried. Next year Buckingham 
was murdered by Felton. Eliot next directed his energies against 
Archbishop Laud, who had expressed his intention of raising Church 
ceremonial, and excluding Puritan teachers from office in the Church, 
and thus, according to Eliot, of making war upon the religious convic- 
tions of the nation. In the midst of an angry debate the king pro- 
rogued parliament, Eliot was again sent to the Tower, and parliament 
was dissolved (March 10, 1629). When examined as to his conduct he 



76 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

refused to answer, on the ground that it would be yielding up the 
privilege of parliament. The Crown lawyers had much difficulty in 
meeting this contention, but they managed to secure his conviction in 
the Court of King's Bench, on the ground that he had calumniated the 
minister of the Crown, and he was fined .2,000. A word of acknow- 
ledgment from him that he had been in the wrong would have procured 
his liberty, but he would not speak it, for to surrender the privileges 
of parliament would have been in his eyes to betray the liberties of 
the nation. So he lay in prison writing the treatise which he called 
The Monarchy of Man, which had a profound effect on public 
opinion and the change in the balance of forces. He showed signs of 
consumption, and petitioned for leave to go into the country to recruit 
his health. But it was refused, and he died November 27, 1632. His 
family petitioned that he might be buried with his ancestors, but this 
also was refused, and he was laid in St. Peter's chapel. 

It was convenient to carry on Eliot's history unbroken, but it is 
necessary to look back to the assassination of Buckingham. The 
assassin, Felton, bought his knife at a stall on Tower Hill, went to 
Portsmouth, and there committed his crime. His motives still remain 
uncertain. Probably religious fanaticism was one, but private ven- 
geance for supposed injustice as to promotion was another. Bucking- 
ham was so unpopular that when Felton was brought down the river 
to the Tower, blessings and prayers were cried after him by the crowd. 
He expressed deep penitence, and requested that he might be allowed 
to wear sackcloth and a halter until the day of his death, and might 
receive the Communion. He was hanged at Tyburn in December, and 
his body was hung in chains at Portsmouth. 

Lords Spencer and Arundel were shut up in the Tower over a private 
quarrel. Arundel insulted Spencer by telling him that at no distant 
time back his ancestors had been tending sheep, to which the retort 
was, " And at that time yours were plotting treason." 

James I was the last monarch who used the Tower as a royal resi- 
dence. Charles I did not even rest there on the night preceding his 
coronation, nor is there any record of his having visited the place during 
his whole reign. 

One line may be given to Mervyn, Lord Audley and Earl of Castle- 



THE STUARTS 77 

haven, who was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1631 for a whole series of 
revolting crimes which probably indicate insanity. But the cells 
continued to be filled by offenders against the Government, Denzil 
Holies, Selden, Valentine, Coryton, Sir Miles Hobart, Sir P. Heyman 
among them. The first-named was brother-in-law of Lord Strafford, 
and strove to save him, but he took a strong part against the king's 
policy, though after the Civil War broke out he opposed Cromwell and 
the Independents, and after the Restoration he was in the confidence 
of the king. John Selden was a steady opponent of the king, but after 
his fall kept entirely clear of politics, and gave himself to his great and 
valuable legal labours. Lord Loudoun was one of the commissioners 
sent to England by the Scottish Covenanters, and was committed to 
the Tower on the charge of treasonable correspondence. Clarendon 
has a story that the king ordered that he should be executed by virtue 
of his royal warrant, that the Marquis of Hamilton made his way to 
the royal presence to remonstrate, and was met with a curt refusal 
to listen. " Let the warrant be obeyed," said the king, whereupon 
Hamilton said, " Then I shall start posthaste for Scotland to-morrow 
morning, for the whole city will be in an uproar, and I will show that 
I had no hand in it." Thereupon Charles gave way, and soon after 
Loudoun was released. But the truth of this story has been questioned. 
He afterwards showed a genuine desire to reconcile the king with the 
Presbyterians, and was present at the coronation of Charles II at Scone 
in 1650. 

But we come now to the two most prominent prisoners of King 
Charles's time. On November II, 1640, the Earl of Strafford was at 
Whitehall making proposals for the impeachment of the parliamentary 
leaders for treason. At the same moment Pym was impeaching 
Strafford in the House of Commons. The earl heard of this, and 
hastened to the House to defend himself, but was not allowed to speak, 
and was carried off to the Tower. So was Archbishop Laud. In 
January Strafford was brought to trial in Westminster Hall, and 
defended himself with superb eloquence. " Never any man," says 
the Puritan chronicler Whitelock, " acted his part on such a theatre 
with greater reason, constancy, judgment and temper, and with better 
grace in all his words and gestures." But he was condemned to die. 



78 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

The king was eager to save him, and there was at one moment a 
possibility of it. Charles had made overtures for a ministry composed 
of the popular leaders, in which Pym was to be Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and Holies Secretary of State. But meanwhile he was 
planning to bring up the army from the North, discontented as it 
was by want of pay, to seize the Tower and free Stratford. He also 
reckoned on support from the Scotch, who were divided into opposing 
parties. But Pym became aware of his double dealing, a peremptory 
message was sent to him by the House of Commons for the death 
warrant, and Charles signed it. We have all heard how the earl wrote 
to the king beseeching him not to endanger his crown by opposing the 
will of the people, and how when he heard of the king's assent he 
exclaimed, " Put not your trust in princes." He was led out to Tower 
Hill to die on May 12, 1641. On his way he passed the Bloody Tower, 
in which Laud was imprisoned, and knelt to receive the blessing, which 
the prelate uttered with uplifted hands. 

That was the turning-point in the history, the victory of Parliament 
over the minister whose theory of government was personal authority. 
And the same conflict of principles was seen in the case of the Arch- 
bishop. He was not brought to trial indeed for some years, for the 
House of Commons had pressing work on hand and the case was much 
more complicated. For there were those among the Puritans who 
loved the Prayer Book with all their hearts, whilst they rejected Laud's 
theory of Church government. The prelate had been educated by 
Buckeridge, president of St. John's College, Oxford, who had always 
set his face against Puritanism in the latter days of Elizabeth's reign, 
and had laid much stress on sacramental grace and episcopal organiza- 
tion ; and Laud had entirely accepted this teaching, and all his life 
was earnestly attached to the observance of external order. And herein 
he was supported by an increasing number of theologians hostile to 
Calvinism. In his early controversial writings he followed the teaching 
of Hooker, desiring to bring questions not of necessity vital, under duly 
authorized authority. He became president of his college in 1611, 
Archdeacon of Huntingdon 1615, Dean of Gloucester 1616, Bishop of 
St. David's 1621. But these successive advancements were not so 
important in his life as the ascendency which he acquired at the acces- 



THE STUARTS 79 

sion of Charles I. He had consistently held to his opinions, and now 
he saw his way, as he thought, to enforce authority as the rule in 
religion, with uniformity as its natural consequence. In 1626 he was 
made Bishop of Bath and Wells, in 1628 of London, Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford in 1629, Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633. It 
is needless to say that his determination to enforce uniformity was 
identified by the Presbyterians as of a piece with Strafford's "thorough." 
Of his zeal, his honesty and purity of purpose there is no question, any 
more than of his holiness of life. But he was blind to the necessity 
of paying due respect to the convictions of others, and his meaning 
was misjudged. Thus, when he insisted on placing the Lord's Table 
at the east end of every church instead of in the middle, he was accused, 
quite untruly, of desiring to restore the Roman Catholic faith. He 
was angry at the charge, and himself incurred the anger of the queen, 
Henrietta Maria, for repudiating Roman doctrine. 

Meanwhile the Civil War broke out (August, 1642), and in London 
for the time being Puritanism had the upper hand ; the Bishops were 
excluded from Parliament, the Archbishop lay in close confinement in 
the Bloody Tower. His diary remains to tell us of the hardships he 
went through. On March 10, 1643, he was brought to trial and 
charged in general terms with " high treason and other misdemeanours." 
The total want of particularity in the articles of accusation, however, 
prove the irregular nature of the proceedings. Sergeant Wild on the 
part of the prosecution admitted this, but said that when all the Arch- 
bishop's evil deeds were put together they made many grand treasons. 
" I crave your mercy," retorted Laud's counsel ; " I never understood 
before, Mr. Sergeant, that two hundred couple of black rabbits made 
a black horse." The trial lasted for twenty days, with many intervals, 
but at length he was condemned on the charge that he had " attempted 
to subvert religion and the fundamental laws of the realm." He was 
beheaded on Tower Hill on January 10, 1645, in the seventy-second 
year of his age, and was buried in the chancel of AUhallows Barking, 
but the body was removed to St. John's, Oxford, in 1663. 

From the time when Charles unfurled his standard at Nottingham, 
the Tower, though nominally held in his name, was in the keeping of 
Parliament, and its prisoners were the king's supporters. Thus Sir 



So THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Ralph Hopton, who had voted for Strafford's attainder and opposed 
King Charles's taxation schemes, was sent here " for ten days " by 
the Parliament because he protested against violent speeches by his 
fellow members against the king. He afterwards joined the king's 
army, and was created Baron Hopton. On the overthrow he retired 
to Bruges, where he died. He was a sincere patriot, and received 
earnest assurances from the Puritan leaders of their personal respect 
for him. Sir John Gayer, Lord Mayor of London, was shut up for 
publishing the king's proclamation against the militia ; so were three 
aldermen and a sheriff, Sir John Glynne, Recorder of London, a first- 
rate lawyer and splendid orator, a supporter of the Solemn League 
and Covenant, but imprisoned for opposing the ascendency of the 
army and the intolerance of the Independents ; released and re-admitted 
to parliament, and one of the commissioners appointed to treat with 
the king at Carisbrooke ; but still distrusted ; made a speech in favour 
of monarchy in 1658, made king's sergeant to Charles II. Two great 
names are those of John Paulet, fifth Marquis of Winchester (" Old 
Loyalty "), the celebrated defender of Basing House, and Monk, the 
future Duke of Albemarle, taken prisoner by Fairfax at the siege of 
Nantwich, and released from imprisonment on condition that he would 
fight for them in Ireland, but not in England. Two of his fellow- 
prisoners who had been fighting by his side, Lord Macquire and Colonel 
MacMahon, were captured in trying to escape by swimming the moat, 
and were hanged. 

At the time of the tragedy at Whitehall, January 30, 164!-, many 
of the king's supporters were prisoners in the Tower, and some of the 
most illustrious of them shared his fate the Duke of Hamilton, the 
Earl of Holland, Arthur Lord Capel. A brave old Welsh knight, Sir 
John Owen, who was also sentenced, made a low bow to the judges, 
and said they had " done honour to a poor gentleman of Wales to 
sentence him with such noble fellow-prisoners." Ireton was so moved 
with this that he made a speech to the Commons pleading that whereas 
the rest had advocates to speak for them, plain Sir John Owen had 
none, and moved that he be pardoned. It was carried, and Sir John 
went back to Wales and died in peace in 1666. Another Lord Mayor, 
Sir Abraham Reynardson, was imprisoned and fined because he would 




s 



THE STU4RTS 81 

not publish the parliamentary ordinance abolishing royalty. After the 
Restoration he was again Lord Mayor. There is a fine portrait of 
him in Merchant Taylors Hall. Christopher Love is another prisoner 
who claims mention. He was a Puritan minister, very eloquent, and 
attracted large congregations. In his horror at the execution of the 
king he turned royalist, and was beheaded for plotting for the Restor- 
ation. After the battle of Worcester in 1651 a great number of prisoners 
were brought hither the Marquis of Worcester, Earls of Crawford, 
Lauderdale, and Rother ; they remained until the Restoration. In 
July, 1656, a mandate was sent by Cromwell to the Lieutenant of the 
Tower for the release of Lucy Barlow and her child. She was other- 
wise named Lucy Walters, and was one of Charles IPs concubines. The 
child was afterwards Duke of Monmouth. She had been imprisoned 
for some time. Miles Syndercombe, who had been in Cromwell's army, 
and in very intimate friendship with him, took affront at some slight 
and tried to assassinate him in 1657. He was sentenced to death, but 
committed suicide, and the body was dragged at a horse's tail from the 
Tower to Tyburn, and there buried with a stake driven through it. 
Dr. John Hewitt was minister of the Church of St. Gregory by St. 
Paul's, and Cromwell's daughter, Elizabeth Claypole, was a regular 
member of his congregation. It is recorded that the Protector himself 
frequently joined her. This did not prevent Hewitt from raising 
forces in Kent and Sussex for the Restoration, and he was beheaded on 
Tower Hill, though Mrs. Claypole earnestly interceded for him. With 
him died Sir Henry Slingsby. There were very many others, and even 
after Cromwell's death plotters were brought in, among them Henry 
Mordaunt, brother of the Earl of Peterborough, Lady Mary Howard, the 
Earl of Chesterfield, Lords Falconbridge, Falkland, De la Ware, Bellasis, 
Charles Howard and Castleton. They were subsequently released. 
When Cromwell died, and the nation was yet in uncertainty as to the 
course of events, the Tower became the object of much attention. 
There was the army on one side and the Parliamentary party on the 
other, and the latter arranged with Colonel Fitz, the Lieutenant, 
that Colonel Okey, with three hundred men, should appear at a given 
hour and demand and receive admittance. But this was divulged and 
the army sent Colonel Desborough with a force, which seized the 

G 



82 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

lieutenant, and placed a fresh garrison. This fell to quarrelling, where- 
upon Lenthall, the speaker, sent another force, which took possession 
under Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper. Then came General Monk's grand 
coup, and he seized the fortress in the name of King Charles. 

The Restoration, as was probably inevitable, brought fierce reprisals 
on those who had been severe and unrelenting. Thomas Harrison had 
been one of the most eager of the regicides ; he had afterwards been 
strenuous in support of Cromwell for a while, but, as an anabaptist, 
had become a Fifth Monarchy man, and had been twice sent to the 
Tower as such. Being released in 1659, ^ e retired to his house in 
Staffordshire, and in May 1660 was arrested there, was brought to 
trial in October, drawn on a hurdle to Charing Cross, and there executed 
(October 13). So were Gregory Clement, a London merchant, Colonel 
John Jones, Thomas Scot, who had all taken part in the king's trial. 
So were Colonels Axtel and Hacker, who had commanded the guard 
at the trial and at the execution. Sir Harry Vane, who had taken no 
part in the trial, was charged with having endeavoured to prevent the 
Restoration, and suffered on that charge. Some escaped, probably 
with the connivance of the guards. Three who had so escaped, and 
had reached Holland Colonels Barkstead and Okey and Miles 
Corbet were treacherously brought back and put to death at Tyburn 
in 1662. Some of the delinquents, e.g. Lord Monson, Sir H. Mildmay, 
Robert Wallop, were sentenced to be drawn on sledges from the Tower 
to Tyburn and back with halters round their necks, and then to suffer 
perpetual imprisonment. In contrast there were grand doings, and 
certainly not without national enthusiasm, in the coronation pro- 
cession from the Tower to Westminster. 

In the great fire of 1666 the Tower was largely indebted for its 
escape to the energy of the king, who had the buildings contiguous to 
the moat and the entrance blown up with gunpowder. Pepys was an 
eyewitness of this measure, and declares that as the White Tower was 
the powder magazine, " it would undoubtedly not only have beaten 
down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in 
the river, and rendered the demolition beyond expression for several 
miles about the country." 

There were many committals in the early years of Charles IPs 



THE STU4RTS 83 

reign, on charges of " seditious practices " and dangerous designs, but 
few of any abiding interest. Thomas, Lord Buller, of Moor Park, 
was sent for challenging the Duke of Buckingham, and the Marquis of 
Dorchester for " using ill language " about the same noble, and in 
1667 the duke himself was shut up here, and not for the first nor second 
time. There is no need here to discuss the character of George Villiers, 
second Duke of Buckingham. Dryden's character of him as " Zimri " 
appears to be as true as it is masterly. He was an infant when his 
father was assassinated, and was brought up with the children of 
Charles I, and served them after the king's death, fighting for the younger 
Charles at Worcester. But in Holland he quarrelled with the queen- 
mother and Clarendon, returned to England and married Fairfax's 
daughter, for which he was sent to the Tower in 1658. Released at 
the Restoration, he was again admitted to royal favour and was an 
influential member of the Cabal ministry, but in 1668 seduced the 
Countess of Shrewsbury, killed her husband in a duel, was consequently 
treated with coldness by the Duke of York, and joined the Whigs ; 
was again sent to the Tower for intriguing, but apparently his ribald 
conversation got him into favour again with Charles II, and he was 
restored to Court favour. From that time he kept out of politics and 
wrote verses. His clever play, the Rehearsal, holds its place in 
English literature. 

We turn aside a while to record a most daring and sensational 
crime, namely Colonel Blood's attempt to carry off the regalia from 
the Tower. He was a brutal ruffian, said to have been Irish born, half 
sailor, half highwayman, who had served under Cromwell, and for that 
reason styled himself Colonel. After the Restoration he became a spy 
of the Government, and if he could have had his way would have sent 
some innocent persons to death. 

In 1671 Sir Gilbert Talbot held the post of " Master of the Jewel 
House." His pay had been lowered, and by way of compensation he 
was allowed to admit visitors to his treasures and to charge. One day 
in April, 1671, came an intensely clerical-looking personage to the 
Martin Tower, with a long cloak, cassock and girdle, accompanied by a 
woman whom he represented as his wife, who was very anxious to see 
the regalia. The glorious dazzle made her faint, and the old curator, 



84 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Talbot Edwards by name, whom Sir Gilbert had placed in charge, 
called his wife to attend to the sick lady. The restoratives adminis- 
tered were so efficacious that the couple went off overflowing with 
gratitude and promising to return. And soon the " cleric " came 
again, bringing a pair of gloves to Mrs. Edwards in return for her kind- 
ness to Mrs. Blood. During this visit he announced that he had a 
nephew just come back from abroad after some prosperous ventures, 
and that he had set his heart on this nephew marrying Edwards' s 
daughter, and the negotiations so far advanced that he was invited to 
bring the nephew to dinner. At dinner he said a long grace with much 
emotion, and afterwards announced that he should bring two friends 
next day, who were leaving London, and very anxious to see the crown 
first. And next day (May 9) they came, all with concealed daggers 
and pocket pistols, and rapiers hidden in their canes, and directly they 
were shown into the room Edwards was effectually gagged, enveloped 
in a thick cloak, and told that if he attempted to give an alarm they 
would kill him. He could not cry out, but he struggled manfully, and 
they beat him on the head with a wooden mallet, stabbed him, and left 
him for dead. Then they turned their attention to their quarry. 
Blood hid the crown under his cloak, one companion put the orb in 
his breeches pocket, and another began to file the sceptre in two pieces, 
as it was too long to carry away without being seen. At this moment 
advancing steps were heard ; Edwards's son had unexpectedly come 
back from Flanders, and he heard his father endeavouring to give the 
alarm. The thieves ran downstairs ; young Edwards, accompanied 
by his brother-in-law, Captain Beckman, who had arrived with him, 
hurried in pursuit. They had crossed the drawbridge leading to the 
wharf, Blood firing two pistols as he ran. There were horses waiting 
for them, but Beckman rushed at him, a fierce struggle followed, in 
which Blood was worsted and captured, as were his companions. When 
he dropped the crown some of the gems fell out but were recovered, 
as was a ruby which was found, having belonged to the sceptre. In fact 
the treasures were uninjured, but poor Edwards, who was eighty years 
old, died in a few days. Blood cynically remarked when he was brought 
a prisoner to the White Tower that " it was a brave attempt, for it was 
for a crown." 



THE STUARTS 85 

It is an absolute mystery why Charles II sent for him forthwith, and 
not only pardoned him, but conferred a pension of ^500 a year on him 
and certain Irish estates. Evelyn, in his diary, expresses his amazement. 
Some think that Charles, wanting money, had commissioned Blood to steal 
the treasures and pawn or sell them in Holland, and divide the spoil 
with him ; others suppose that Blood knew some awkward secrets about 
the king and threatened to reveal them. He often appeared at Court, 
and returned kindness which the Duke of Buckingham had shown 
him by a peculiarly atrocious attempt to blackmail him, for which he 
was fined .10,000. He died in Bowling Street, Westminster, August 
24, 1680. His likeness in the National Portrait Gallery quite con- 
firms Evelyn's description of him, " a villainous unmerciful face, a false 
countenance." 

Yet even his rascality grows dim beside that of Titus Gates, whose 
horrible concoction of lies concerning a pretended Popish plot sent 
nearly forty men to the scaffold. The execution of William Lord Stafford 
on Tower Hill, December 29, 1680, on the charge sworn to by Gates 
that he planned to kill the king and place the Duke of York on the 
throne, was the turning-point in the agitation. When it began Gates 
was half deified by the excited populace as the deliverer of the country \. 
but as time went on men shook their heads, doubtfully at first, then 
strongly. Lord Stafford on the scaffold declared his absolute inno- 
cence, and the spectators cried out with tears, " We believe your lord- 
ship." Gates had made too rich a harvest to give up his devilish busi- 
ness, but after this he found no more believers. But that there was 
good reason to expect an endeavour to restore the Roman faith no one 
doubted. As far back as 1670 the Duke of York had given his adhesion 
to it, and therefore the " country party," as it was called, were eager 
to prevent his accession to the throne. The struggles over the Ex- 
clusion Bill need not detain us here ; but the failure of that Bill, owing 
to the " trimming " of some of its chief supporters who loved the 
favour of royalty, led to a secret project of the earnest Whigs to avert 
what they held to be a calamity. The leader of this party had been 
Anthony Ashley, first Earl of Shaftesbury. " Of these the false Ahitho- 
phel was first," wrote Dryden in his great satire. He was joined by 
Lord William Russell, the Duke of Monmouth, Algernon Sidney, the 



86 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Earl of Essex, son of Lord Capel, who was beheaded in the early days 
of the Commonwealth, John Hampden, grandson of the great Parlia- 
mentary leader, and Lord Howard. Shaftesbury had been sent to the 
Tower in 1677 for agitating against the king's high-handed proceedings 
against the Corporation of London, but had been released on sub- 
mission. He now protested against the king holding a Parliament at 
Oxford and was again lodged in the Tower, but the Whig grand jury 
threw out the charge. But he soon found that his friends would not 
take such energetic measures as he called for, so he retired to Holland, 
where he soon died. His companions formed new projects of insur- 
rection, but could not agree ; Sidney and Lord Essex were for a Com- 
monwealth, Monmouth hoped for the crown for himself. Russell and 
Hampden were attached to the old constitution, and sought for " re- 
dress of grievances." And whilst they were discussing, the " Rye House 
Plot " was formed by some inferior conspirators of the same way of 
thinking. The Rye House lay on the road to Newmarket. The owner, 
Rumbold, was an old Republican, and a plan was formed to kill the 
king on his way to Newmarket races. It was made known to the 
Government, and though it was shown that some of the greater men 
had held meetings at the Rye House in support of their general views, 
it was also clear that neither Russell, Essex nor Sidney were parties to the 
assassination scheme. The trial of Lord Russell, and the devotion of 
his wife furnish a pathetic chapter in history. He was beheaded in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields July 21, 1683. On the same day Lord Essex was found in 
the Tower with his throat cut. Some held that he had been murdered 
by the king and the Duke of York, but the coroner's jury brought in 
a verdict of suicide, and Gardiner and Green both consider this as the 
most probable view. Sidney followed. He was in principle a republi- 
can, though he had refused to accept a seat among the judges of 
Charles I. He was now condemned on the sole evidence of his com- 
panion, Lord Howard, who had turned king's evidence to save his own 
life, and on that of some letters of his in which he upheld the lawfulness 
of resisting tyrants. Jeffreys, who was now Chief Justice, tried him, 
and persuaded the jury to convict. He was beheaded on December 7. 
Charles II and his brother James are said not to have visited the 
Tower for fifteen years before they came thither at the time of Essex's 



THE STUARTS 87 

death. When Charles died, February 6, i68|, the Tower may be 
said to have ceased to be a royal residence. At the coronation of 
James II, the usual procession from thence to Westminster was omitted, 
and has never since been revived. But it continued to be a state 
prison. There is no need to tell how the unhappy son of Charles II 
and Lucy Walters, James, Duke of Monmouth, took up arms to obtain 
the crown, and how he was defeated at the battle of Sedgemoor, the 
last battle fought on English ground, July 6, 1685. He was captured 
and brought to London on the I3th, and being allowed an interview 
with the king, with abject cries supplicated in vain for his life. He 
was sent to the Tower, and two days later, a bill of attainder having 
been previously passed against him, he was beheaded on Tower Hill. 
The Bishops of Ely and Bath and Wells (Turner and Ken) accompanied 
him to the scaffold, where his head was hacked off after five blows. 

But a memorable time was reached in the history of the Church and 
Nation when " the Seven Bishops " were brought hither as prisoners. 
The king announced his intention of repealing by his own personal act 
the Penal Laws against Roman Catholics and Dissenters. The leading 
Dissenters in reply Baxter, Howe, Bunyan rejected such " indul- 
gence," which they said should be by Act of Parliament, not by an 
absolute overruling of the law. They saw, of course, clearly what his 
aim was. He was, as usual, obstinate, published the " Declaration of 
Indulgence," which all the clergy were commanded to read in church. 
Four only did it in London, and when they began the congregations 
walked out, and a similar spirit was shown in the country. The Arch- 
bishop, Bancroft, summoned his brother bishops to Lambeth, and the six 
who were able to obey him, namely Lloyd of St. Asaph, Ken of Bath and 
Wells, Turner of Ely, Lake of Chichester, White of Peterborough, and 
Trelawney of Bristol, joined in a temperate protest, in which they told 
the King that the declaration was illegal, and asked him to withdraw it. 
In anger he sent them all to the Tower for " uttering a seditious libel." 
They were carried to Traitors' Gate, the banks of the river thronged 
with cheering spectators ; the very sentinels knelt for their blessing and 
the soldiers drank their healths. The narrative of their trial in West- 
minster Hall is perhaps the most splendid chapter in Macaulay's History. 
On June 29 they were acquitted, although the jury had been packed 



88 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

and the judges were tools of the Crown, and the roof of Westminster 
Hall cracked at the tremendous applause which followed the verdict. 

A curious episode occurred in the last days of James's reign. Bevis 
Skelton was English minister in the Netherlands, and warned James of 
the designs of the Duke of Orange, whereupon the latter pressed for his 
recall. James sent him then to Versailles, and he moved Louis XIV to 
oppose William's schemes. But King James resented his interference, 
recalled him, and sent him to the Tower ; and then finding that the 
danger from Orange was imminent, made Skelton governor of the for- 
tress in which he had been a prisoner. When James fled, the keys of 
the Tower were taken from Skelton and confided to Lord Lucas, who 
held them for the Prince of Orange. Skelton followed the king across 
seas and died in his service. 

Lucas had not long held his office before he was entrusted with the 
custody of Judge Jeffreys. That this extraordinary man was violent of 
temper no one questions ; he was also a man of strong convictions ; he 
never in his subservience to his royal master showed any yielding to that 
master's faith ; he had great natural ab ility ; and as we read of his un- 
relenting cruelty in his progress through Dorset and Somerset to try 
the rebels after the Sedgemoor campaign, it is also impossible not to 
see how skilfully he produced evidence against his prisoners. In that 
" Bloody Assize " 350 rebels were hanged, more than 800 were sold into 
slavery beyond sea, and a yet larger number were whipped and im- 
prisoned. Even loyal subjects were appalled at the cruelty, and he was 
regarded with horror and disgust. James made him Lord Chancellor, and 
when James fled, Jeffreys knew that his own fall was imminent. He heard 
the mob shouting his name and disguised himself as a collier, and hid 
himself in a little house at Wapping until such time as he could escape 
beyond sea. He was recognized, whilst looking out of window, by a 
clerk that he had bullied from the bench, was seized and conveyed first 
to the Mansion House, then to the Tower. And here he died, on 
April 19, 1689. He was only forty-one years old. He is buried in 
the chancel of St. Mary, Aldermanbury. 

During the twelve years' joint reign of William and Mary there was 
only one political execution, namely that of Sir John Fenwick, who was 
beheaded on Tower Hill, January 28, 1697, for conspiring to assassinate 



THE STU4RTS 89 

King William. He was a man of irregular life, and there is no doubt 
of his guilt. But the Tower was constantly receiving fresh captives, 
partisans of the House of Stuart. Thus in 1690 " Francis Cholmondeley, 
Esquire, a member of the House of Commons, was committed for re- 
fusing to take the oaths of allegiance ; and Matthew Crosse, otherwise 
Long, Colonel John Butler, Major George Matthews, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Knyvet Hastings and the Earl of Yarmouth, in the same year, 
' for abetting and adhering to their Majesties' enemies.' To these 
may be added Charles Halton, Esquire, for publishing a treasonable 
libel ; Bernard Howard, Esquire ; Lord Ross ; Arthur, Earl of Torrington ; 
Sir John Gage and Sir Walter Vavasour, for various political offences 
amounting to high treason. Mr. Stafford, the Earls of Newburgh, 
Clancarty and Tyrone ; with Thomas, Lord Morley and Monteagle ; 
Henry, Earl of Clarendon ; George, Lord Dartmouth ; Major-General 
Maxwell ; Lord Cahire ; Major-General Dorrington and Mr. Maxwell 
were also prisoners, but the specific charges under which they were com- 
mitted are unascertained " (Britton). 

In 1692, John, Earl of Marlborough, was imprisoned on a charge 
" of abetting and adhering to their Majesties' enemies," as were also 
Lord Brudenell, the Earl of Huntingdon, Sir Robert Thorold and 
Colonel Langston. They were, after two months' confinement, re- 
leased on bail to reappear if called upon. Charles, Lord Mohun, was 
also a prisoner in the same year, for having killed William Mountford, 
the celebrated comedian, in a quarrel on account of Mrs. Bracegirdle, 
an eminent actress. Readers of Esmond will remember the story. " In 
February, 1692, Lord Viscount Falkland and Henry Guy, Esquire, 
suffered a short confinement in the Tower for having, as Members of 
Parliament, received bribes ; and, at various intervals during the year, 
Colonel John Parker ; Bartholomew Walmesley, Esquire ; Sir Thomas 
Stanley ; Caryl, Lord Viscount Mollineux ; Sir Rowland Stanley ; Sir 
Thomas Clifton ; Sir William Gerard ; Peter Leigh and William Diccon- 
son, Esquires, were immured in the same prison on charges of adhering 
to the enemies of the Government, and levying war against their Majes- 
ties." 

" In 1696, Charles, Earl of Monmouth, ' for having spoken disrespect- 
fully of the king,' and Henry Buckley, Esquire , Thomas, Earl of 



90 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

Ailesbury ; Sir Philip Constable ; Arthur, Lord Forbes ; and Sir John 
Fenwick were imprisoned here on various charges of sedition and 
treason. Thomas, Lord Kerry, and Brigadier Richard Ingoldsby were 
committed, in the following year, for having challenged the Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland ; as were, likewise, John Knight and Charles 
Duncombe, Esquires, members of the House of Commons, the former 
for having falsely endorsed exchequer bills, and the latter for aiding and 
assisting in his illegal practices. Two years afterwards, Sir Richard 
Levin was lodged in this fortress for aspersing the characters of four 
of the commissioners of Irish forfeitures ; as were also Charles, Lord 
Mohun, and Edward, Earl of Warwick and Holland, on a charge of 
murdering Richard Coote, Esquire ; but those noblemen were unani- 
mously acquitted by their peers." 

The largeness of the number of prisoners is shown by a paper in 
the handwriting of Sir C. Wren in 1695. He '^vas directed to examine 
the Bloody and Beauchamp Towers to see what additions could be 
made for the reception of prisoners, apparently with special reference 
to the arrivals from Ireland. He replies, " I have also viewed the place 
behinde the Chappell, and considered and do approve the annex'd 
draught proposed to be built wch I take to be as Large as ye place will 
afford containing 15 square and if it be well built in 3 storeys, Cellars 
and garretts it will cost j6oo. As to the number of Prisoners the place 
may hold I can only report wt number of rooms each place contains. 
Beauchamp Tower hath a large Kitching 2 large rooms and 2 small 
servants rooms. Bloody Tower hath a kitching one room and one 
closet. The new building may contain 9 single rooms, besides cellars 
and garrets and a kitching, all wch is humbly submitted." 

In the early years of Queen Anne's reign there were a good many 
sent to the Tower, taken in the French wars, but no state prisoners- 
But in 1712 a notable attempt was made on a famous public man, Sir 
Robert Walpole. He had been in Parliament since the queen's acces- 
sion, and had displayed such brilliant ability as a financier as to induce 
the Duke of Marlborough to give him office in the Government. But 
his Whiggism, moderate as it was, offended Harley and Mrs. Masham, 
who gained continually more ascendency over the queen, and Harley 
intrigued shamefully against him, and brought a vague charge of 



THE STUARTS 91 

breach of trust in office and of corruption. It was a thoroughly unjust 
charge, but on the strength of it he was sent to the Tower and expelled 
from the House of Commons. But public opinion was roused by the 
injustice, and largely withdrew its confidence from the Tory ministry. 
Whilst he remained in the prison he was visited by great people, and his 
constituency (King's Lynn) returned him again as its member. He 
remained in confinement from February to July, and employed his time 
in writing political pamphlets. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 

Accession of George I Impeachment of Harley The Rebellion of 1715 Execution 
of Lords Derzventwater and Kenmuir Escape of Nithisdale Plots of Atter- 
bury and others in 1722 Imprisonment of Lord Macclesfield The " 45 " 
Execution of Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, Charles Retcliff, and Lord Lovat 
Imprisonment and Trial of Wilkes and his Friends on the Charge of Treason 
of Alderman Oliver and Lord Mayor Crosby for alleged Condonation of Mis- 
demeanour of Home Tooke and his Companions for Treason of Sir Francis 
Burdett for Breach of Privilege Of the Cato Street Conspirators The Fire of 
1841 The Fenian Conspiracy of 1885 Conclusion. 

THE accession of George I was at once marked by the ascendency 
of the Whigs, and they lost no time in showing this. Robert Harley, 
whom Queen Anne had made Earl of Oxford, and who had been a 
favourite minister of the nation, was impeached on the charge that 
during the French wars, in his hatred of the Duke of Marlborough, 
he had instructed the French king as to the best method of capturing 
Tournai. On June 10, 1715, the House of Commons, of which but 
a short time before he had been the idol, sent him to the Tower, where 
he languished for two years, never losing confidence. His continual 
petition to be tried was at last conceded, and he was acquitted in 
July, 1717. 

But there was an influential party among the high Tories who were 
unmistakably anxious to restore the Stuarts, and even the Duke of 
Marlborough, who all his life through had a passion for intrigue, find- 
ing that he was not trusted by King George, seems to have entered 
into negotiations with the Pretender, " the Chevalier de St. George," 
who in August, 1715, published from France a manifesto, asserting his 
right to the throne. When the Whig Government impeached Boling- 
broke and the Duke of Ormond for complicity, they fled to France. 
But the rising began in Scotland, under the Earl of Mar. He was an 



THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 93 

incapable man ; and though he was joined by other nobles in the North, 
and might have won most dangerous successes, he shrank before the 
Duke of Argyll, who had been sent by the king to oppose him. The 
result was the rebellion of 1715 and its failure. The most conspicuous 
character in this ill-starred attempt was Janies Radcliffe, Earl of 
Derwentwater, a young man of twenty-six who deserved a better fate, 
for all accounts describe him as singularly attractive and winning in 
person and manner. He was the only Englishman of note who joined 
the enterprize. His mother, Mary Tudor, was a natural daughter of 
Charles II, who brought him up as a Roman Catholic. He was very 
rich for those days. His home, from which he took his title, was an 
jsland in the most beautiful of English lakes, and his income from mines 
was nearly .40,000 a year. With him were six Scotch nobles, William 
Maxwell, Earl of Nithisdale ; Robert Dalzell, Earl of Carnwarth ; 
William Gordon, Lord Kenmure, brother-in-law of Carnwarth ; 
George Seton, fifth Earl of Wintoun ; William, Lord Nairn ; and 
William, fourth Lord Widdrington. They were brought up to London 
tightly bound on horseback, and paraded through the streets- to the 
prison. Much interest was made for them in Parliament, and a vote 
of petition for pardon was carried in the House of Lords. They were 
tried in February, 1716, and condemned. Wintoun was the only 
one who refused to plead guilty, but was convicted and sentenced. 
Next year Widdrington, Carnwarth and Nairn were pardoned, the 
others were left for death. So greatly was Derwentwater loved 
in his own home that it is said the peasantry drove his wife out 
of it because, as they alleged, she had driven him to rebel and so 
deprived them of a generous landlord. But when the crowds assembled 
on Tower Hill, they found, to their great amazement, that there 
were only three victims. For Lord Nithisdale had escaped the 
night before. His young wife had travelled up, through the 
winter snow, all the way from their home in Dumfriesshire to beg 
forgiveness for him. Failing in this, she formed her plans with great 
skill, and has left the narrative, which reads like an entrancing romance 
the taking into the condemned cell a friend to whom she had con- 
fided her method as they walked along the street, the double dress which 
she persuaded the friend to put on at entrance, enduing the prisoner 



94 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

with the outer dress, and so deceiving the sentinels. They got away 
safely, hid for a few days in London, and then he went away to Rome, 
disguised as one of the footmen of the Venetian ambassador. Not 
content with this feat, she resolved to petition for the restoration of 
the estates, and made her way into St. James's Palace, and into 
the king's presence. He would have gone out without answering her, 
but she writes, " I caught hold of the skirt of his coat that he might 
stop and hear me. He endeavoured to escape out of my hands, but 
I kept such strong hold that he dragged me on my knees from the 
middle of the room to the very door. At last one of the Blue Ribands 
who attended his Majesty took me round the waist, while another 
wrested the coat from my hands." They lived together at Rome till 
1749, w ^ en he died, and she not long afterwards. How Wintoun 
escaped is not precisely known, but the probability seems to be that 
he bribed a warder and filed through the bars of a window. 

The zeal for the house of Stuart was by no means quenched, and 
the failure of the South Sea project, the panic in the money market 
arising out of it, the downfall of great commercial houses, produced 
general discontent, which rekindled the hopes of the Jacobites. This 
time, in 1722, the movement was led by Francis Atterbury, Bishop of 
Rochester and Dean of Westminster. Joined with him were the Duke 
of Norfolk, Lords North, Orrery and Grey, some commoners, and an 
Irish priest named Kelly. They planned to seize the Tower and the 
Bank, to arrest the king, and proclaim King James. But the plot 
became known to the regent Orleans, who was on terms of friendship 
with the English king, and told him of it. The conspirators were all 
sent to the Tower on a charge of high treason. They lay in prison 
for some months. Atterbury was deprived and banished the country. 
He died eight years later, just seventy years old, and was brought to 
England and buried in the abbey that he loved. 

Lord Chancellor Macclesfield was imprisoned in 1724 for " venality 
in the discharge of his office." 

We come now to a very serious and important passage in the records 
of the great fortress, namely, the rebellion of " the Forty-five." The 
Scotch were, as we have seen, largely in sympathy with the exiled 
family. In 1743 a Highland regiment, distinguished for its good order 



THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 95 

and discipline, mutinied on being ordered to Flanders. They de- 
clared that they had received a promise that they should not be sent 
abroad where they would very likely be brought into warfare with their 
Jacobite friends. A hundred and nine of them laid down their arms 
and marched away. Three regiments of dragoons were sent to 
bring them back ; they were sent to the Tower ; three were shot, and 
the others sent to the plantations. This cruel measure produced a 
most bitter feeling through Scotland, and rendered comparatively easy 
a fresh endeavour of the Stuarts to re-establish themselves. Twenty 
years of calm had passed when Charles Edward, " the Young Pre- 
tender," landed in Inverness-shire in July, 1745. His adventures are 
nowhere better told than in Waverley. He defeated Cope at Preston- 
pans, marched into England as far as Derby, retreated, was crushed by 
the Duke of Cumberland at Culloden on April 8, 1746, and the hopes 
of the Stuarts were at an end for ever. He, as we know, made his escape, 
but the " rebel lords " who had thrown in their lot with him were 
brought to the Tower, which had seen no political prisoners for more 
than twenty years. William Boyd was fourth Earl of Kilmarnock ; 
William Murray, Marquis of Tullibardine, son of the Duke of Atholl, 
had been pardoned after taking part in the " 15 " ; he now brought a 
great number of Atholl men at this second rising, gave himself up after 
Culloden, quite worn out, though he was only fifty-eight ; he died in 
the Tower in a few days. Arthur Elphinstone, sixth Baron Balmerino, 
had also been pardoned after the " 15," but joined the fresh rebellion, 
hid himself after Culloden, but was betrayed. There were also Charles 
Radcliffe, a younger brother of the Earl of Derwentwater, who had 
perished in 1715, and a few others of little mark. Horace Walpole, 
writing to Sir Horace Mann, gives a striking account of the trial of 
the three lords in Westminster Hall. Kilmarnock and Cromarty 
pleaded guilty, Balmerino not guilty, but he was condemned by the 
unanimous vote of the peers. He was evidently a man of high charac- 
ter ; " the brave, noble old fellow," Walpole calls him. His calmness, 
courage, piety in his last days, had a profound effect upon all who 
were with him. Cromarty was afterwards pardoned. The Gentle- 
man's Magazine for 1745 gives full details of the execution of the 
other two on Tower Hill. They died with firm courage. Radcliffe 



96 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

also died on the same scaffold. Somewhat later followed another 
execution ; Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, an utterly unscrupulous 
political intriguer, and a man whose disreputable life reads like a bad 
novel. He had what was probably a unique experience, in having 
been a prisoner in the Bastille in 1702, on the charge of betraying a 
Jacobite plot to the English Government, and in the Tower for treason- 
able correspondence with the Pretender. While on his way from his 
capture in Scotland to the Tower he rested at the White Hart at St. 
Albans, and there fell in with Hogarth, who there and then made the 
portrait of him which is now in the National Portrait Gallery, and the 
engravings of which are so familiar to us. This engraving was made 
under the superintendence of the painter, and there was such a run 
upon it, the printing press being always at work, day and night, that 
for a considerable time he made 12 a day by the sale. Lovat was be- 
headed on April 9, 1747, and it was the last execution on Tower Hill. 
There were two more executions from the Tower Earl Ferrers in 
1760 for shooting his steward, and Henry Francis de la Motte, a French 
spy but these were both hanged at Tyburn. Lord Ferrers would 
certainly in our day have been acquitted on the ground of insanity. 

A few more names have to be mentioned before we close the history 
of the Tower as a State prison. John Wilkes, M.P. for Middlesex, 
was brought in on April 30, 1763, as the author of No. 45 of The North 
Briton, which was styled in the warrant committing him, " a most 
infamous and seditious libel." After argument in the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, Chief Justice Pratt decided that the misdemeanour charged 
against him was " not an offence sufficient to destroy the privilege of 
a member of Parliament," and he was immediately liberated (May 3). 
Alderman Oliver and Sir Brass Crosby, Lord Mayor, were both sent 
to the Tower in March, 1771, for admitting a man to bail who had, 
under the Speaker's warrant, apprehended the printer of the London 
Evening Post for publishing the debates of the House of Commons. 
They justified their conduct on the ground of city privileges, and the 
House against them asserted its authority. They remained immured 
till Parliament was prorogued in the following July, and were then 
released ; but public opinion was evidently so strong in their favour 
that the Commons from that time gave in. Lord George Gordon was 




s 



- 







THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 97 

imprisoned after the riots of 1780, was tried next year, and declared 
" not guilty." At the same time the Earl of Pomfret was committed 
for challenging the Duke of Graf ton. In 1794 John Home Tooke, 
John Thelwall, Thomas Hardy and others were imprisoned on the 
charge of high treason. They had distributed the writings of Thomas 
Paine, and had gone certain lengths in favour of the " Rights of Man," 
but repudiated the application of the principles of the French Revolu- 
tion to England. They were " radicals " in desiring reform, yet were 
not in favour of general subversion. In fact, they were men who, 
after raising a cry, were frightened at the logical consequences of it, 
and settled down into quietude. Chief Justice Eyre tried them with 
conspicuous fairness, and they were at once pronounced " Not guilty," 
to the satisfaction of the spectators. 

Arthur O'Connor and three other " United Irishmen " were 
charged with high treason in 1798 ; they were accused of holding a 
traitorous correspondence with the French Directory. They were 
acquitted, but O'Connor lay in the Tower for some time ; he was then 
discharged and went to France, where he received a commission from 
Napoleon. Sackville Tufton, Earl of Thanet, was also tried for 
attempting to release O'Connor, and was sentenced to be imprisoned 
for a year in the Tower and to pay 1000 fine. 

In April, 1810, Sir Francis Burdett, M.P. for Westminster, who 
had laboured unselfishly and conscientiously on behalf of liberty of 
speech and Parliamentary reform, made a speech in the House of 
Commons demanding the discharge from custody of a radical orator 
who had been imprisoned for objecting to the exclusion of strangers 
from the debates. He was defeated by a large majority, 153 against 14. 
Thereupon he printed and published his speech. This was declared a 
breach of privilege, and Speaker Abbot issued a warrant for his arrest. 
He shut himself up in his house, and there was great excitement on 
the question whether it might be forcibly entered. The soldiers were 
called out, and after four days' excitement the house was entered and 
Burdett was conveyed to the Tower, with many thousands of soldiers 
guarding the town. He remained in prison till Parliament was 
prorogued, when he was released and went quietly home by water, 
much to the disgust of the mob, who wanted to have a great demon- 
EC 



98 THE TOWER OF LONDON 

tration. He pursued his steady course of promoting reforms, but still 
declared that he was not a party man, and his disapproval of the speeches 
of O'Connell drove him into union with the Tories in his later years. 
He was a generous and kindly man, a perfect type of a country 
gentleman. 

In March, 1820, Arthur Thistlewood, Richard Tidd, James lugs, 
John Harrison, William Davidson, James Brunt and John Monument 
entered into a plot to assassinate all the Ministry at a Cabinet dinner 
at Lord Harrowby's, in Grosvenor Square. This is known as the Cato 
Street Conspiracy, from the place where the meetings were held. It 
was divulged in time, and the cut-throats were arrested and placed in 
the Tower, and tried at the Old Bailey. All the above, except Monu- 
ment, were hanged outside Newgate. This is the last time that the 
Tower was ever used as a State prison. Thistlewood, who had held a 
commission in the Militia, was confined in the Bloody Tower, the others 
in the Middle, Byward and Salt Towers. 

It remains to chronicle two events in the history of the great for" 
tress in the reign of Queen Victoria. The ugly Armoury which had 
been begun by James II and completed by William III caught fire 
on October 30, 1841, from the Bowyer Tower, on which it abutted. 
The latter building was set ablaze by an overheated flue. The whole 
building was destroyed, as were 150,000 stands of small arms piled up 
within it. A policeman named Pierce, at the risk of his life, broke the 
bars of the cage in which the regalia were kept and handed them out, 
with the result that not one was missing, though the cloth in which 
some of them were wrapped was charred. The only relic of much 
interest which was destroyed was the wheel of Nelson's ship Victory. 
The site is now occupied with the barracks, built under the direction 
of the Duke of Wellington, and reaching from the end of St. Peter's 
Church to the East Wall, loopholed for musketry, and capable of holding 
a thousand men. The Iron Duke's primary idea of the place was as 
a fortress. 

On January 24, 1885, a plan was concocted by Fenians for a simul- 
taneous threefold outrage in London. Explosive packages were placed 
at 2 p.m. in St. Stephen's Chapel, the Inner House of Commons, and 
the Tower of London. In the first case a lady saw it, and, suspecting 



THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 99 

mischief, told a constable on duty. Constable Coles rushed into the 
chapel and picked up the packet, but almost as soon as he reached 
Westminster Hall he was obliged to let it fall, and it went off with a 
terrific explosion, blew holes both in the floor and the roof, and smashed 
windows. In the House itself a few minutes later the explosion tore 
off doors and brought down the Speaker's and Peers' gallery, and 
injured two constables badly. At the Tower the miscreants chose 
the middle storey of the White Tower, used as a storehouse for modern 
arms. The chief damage was done to the large Hall and St. John's 
Chapel. The Armoury caught fire, but it was extinguished in about 
an hour. Two boys and three girls were badly injured. The perpe- 
trator in this case was caught, and proved to be an old hand at like 
outrages. He was sentenced to fourteen years' hard labour. 



So ends our history. From the nature of the case, it has mainly 
dealt with crime and punishment, but we all feel that it would be 
unfair and untrue to call it a history of gloom. The history of suffering 
contains elements of sublime beauty, of courage, and self-denial, and 
faith, and patient endurance. " The whole creation groaneth and 
travaileth in pain," but it does so in faith, sometimes in blindness, 
always looking for and striving after the revelation of the Perfect Will, 
the Visible Kingdom of God. I have thought so continually in writing 
these records, constant war and bloodshed, too often the offspring of 
unholy ambition and selfish greed. But there was always a King 
above the waterfloods, and therefore our national history is a history 
of God subduing the wrath of man and turning it to His praise. Nor- 
man, Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart the Tower has memorials of evil 
deeds wrought by each one in turn ; but there is not one of them all 
which has not left beneficent and abiding results. We have seen how 
More and Fisher died the death of heroes in defence of the Roman 
faith, and how Anne Askew was burned for rejecting it, and who will 
deny her the name of faithful martyr also ? But one or the other 
must be wrong, I may be told. And I answer, Neither was wrong ; 
each was clinging to the truth which God was revealing to the soul. 
A fragment of truth, no doubt, but real in its measure. " Judge 



ioo THE TOWER OF LONDON 

nothing before the time, until the Lord come, and then shall each 
have praise from God." 

Our little systems have their day, 

They have their day and cease to be ; 

They are but broken lights of Thee, 
And Thou, O Lord, art more than they. 

Noble words of the great poet ; and what student of Theology or 
History has not felt their truth ? Strafford died a martyr to a great 
cause, as he honestly deemed it, namely, the good order and perma- 
nence of the kingdom, and Sir John Eliot died broken-hearted in the 
Tower because he resisted him, as the defender of personal liberty. 
Laud died because he believed in the divine mission of the Church of 
England, and Richard Baxter was imprisoned and persecuted as a 
Puritan. But the honest reader of their lives will call them both 
saints. William Penn wrote his " No Cross no Crown " in the Tower. 
And the great Keep lifted on high above the surrounding city 
tells of stern strength and repression ; yet this is not its mes- 
sage to the passers-by. The life of a great nation contains two 
essential elements, Permanence and Progress. And to the teeming 
thousands who live in sight of it, the Tower of London may speak 
of both. All through the centuries it has looked down upon a people 
who have risen to greatness ; upon a nation which, beginning on an 
island, has become a benefactor to the whole world by loving its ancient 
traditions and recognizing God as its King. And its records also tell 
that under the hand of God this has been done by men who suffered 
hardships, imprisonment, violent death, to bear witness of their hope, 
to strive for the right, to make their country, according to their light, 
more worthy of its name, more conducive to the glory of God, more 
beneficent to mankind. 



INDEX 



Adam of Lambourne, 5 

Agincourt, Battle of, 29 

Albany, Duke of, 28 

Albemarle, Duke of, George Monk, 80, 82 

Alfred, King, 2 

All Hallows Barking, 17, 45, 79 

Anne, Queen, 90 

Anne Boleyn, 1 1, 43, 44 

Anne of Bohemia, Queen of Richard II, 26, 27 

Anne of Cleves, 47 

Anselm, Archbishop, 3 

Arabella Stuart, 69 

Arden, Escape of, 72 

Argyll, Duke of, 93 

Arthur, Prince of Wales, 40, 41 

Arundel, Archbishop, 31 

Arundel, Earls of : Richard Fitzalan, fourth 
Earl, 27 ; Henry Fitzalan, twelfth Earl, 
i, 54; Philip Howard, thirteenth Earl, 
62, 64 ; Thomas Howard, fourteenth 
Earl, 74 

Askew, Anne, 48 

Atterbury, Bishop, 97 

Austin Friars, 27, 43 



Babington's Conspiracy, 62 

Bacon, Lord, 71 

Bailly, Charles, 62 

Baliol, John, King of Scotland, 7 

Ball, John, 25 

Balmerino, Lord, 95 

Barton, Elizabeth, the Maid of Kent, 44 

Barnet, Battle of, 34 

Bayley, John, Historian of the Tower, 7 

Beaufort, Henry, Bishop of Winchester, 31, 

32, 33 

Beaufort, Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 44 
Bedford, Duke of, 32 
Bekington, Thomas de, 1 1 
Blood, Colonel, 83 
Bona, Duchess of Orleans, 30 
Boniface, Archbishop, 6 
Bonner, Edmund, Bishop of London, 48 
Bosworith, Battle of, 39 
Bourchier, Robert, 9 
Brackenbury, Sir Robert, 37 
Bretigny, Peace of. 10 
Brooke, George, 68, 69 
Brouncker, Lord, 12 
Bruce, David, King of Scotland, 10 
Buckingham, Dukes of : Henry Stafford, 

second Duke, 36 ; Edward Stafford, 

third Duke, 42, 43 ; George Villiers, 74 ; 

George Villiers II, 83 
Burchet, Peter, 63 
Burdett, Sir Francis, 97 



Burgundy, Duke Philip of, 29, 30} Charles 

the Bold, 40 

Burgundy, Margaret, Duchess of, 40 
Burleigh, Lord, 66, 69 
Burley, Sir Simon, 26 
Burgh, Hubert de, 6 

Cade. Jack, 33 
Caen, 9 

Calais, Siege of, 9 
Campion, Father, 63 
Catherine of Valois, 29 
Cato Street Conspiracy, 98 
Caxton, William, 40 
Charles I, 10, 74, 77 
Charles II, 37, 77, 83, 86 
Charles of Blois, 10 
Charles VI of France, 29 
Charles VIII, 40 

Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, 95 
Chertsey, Abbot of, 23 
Clare, Gilbert de, 6 
Clarence, Duke of, 34, 35 
Cobham, Lord, Sir John Oldcastle, 30 
Cobham, Lord, Henry Brooke, 68, 69 
Constable of the Tower, The, 20 
Courtenay, William, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 26 

Courtenay, Henry, Marquis of Exeter, 45, 46 
Cranfield, Lionel, Earl of Middlesex, 77 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 44, 47, 48, 5 5 
Crecy, Battle of, 9, 33 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, 80 
Cromwell, Oliver, 18, 81 
Cromwell, Thomas, 46 
Cromarty, Earl of, 9 
Culloden, Battle of, 95 
Cuffe, Henry, 66, 67 
Cumberland, Duke of, 95 

Danes, The, 2 
Darcy, Sir John, 10 
Darnley, Lord, 20, 61 
Davison, William, 64 
Derwentwater, Earl of, 93 
Despensers, The, 79 
Dudley, Edmund, 42 
Dudley, Lord GuUdford, 53, 59 

Edward I, 6, 7 
Edward II, 7 
Edward III, 8, 9 
Edward IV, 34, 53 
Edward V, 35 
Edward VI, 49, 55 



101 



102 



INDEX 



Edward, the Black Prince, 9, 26 

Edwards, Talbot, 82, 83 

Eliot, Sir John, 74, 78 

Eleanor of Savoy, Queen of Henry III, 5, n 

Elizabeth, Queen, 43, 47, 52, 58, 59 

Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of Edward IV, 

35. 36, 53 

Elizabeth of York, Queen of Henry VII, 41 
Empson, Richard, 42 
Essex, Earl of, Robert Devereux, 65, 67 
Essex, Countess of, 73 
Exeter, Duke of, John Holland, 12 
Evesham, Battle of, 6 
Eustace de St. Pierre, 9, 10 

Fawkes, Guy, 71 

Feckenham, John de, Abbot of Westminster, 

57,60 

Felton, John, 76 
Fenwick, Sir John, 88 
Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester, 44 
Flambard, Ralph, Bishop of Durham, 3, 6 
Flamsteed, John, 17 
Froissart, 25 

Gardiner, Stephen, Bishop of Winchester, 54, 

60 

Gaveston, Piers, 7 
Gerard, John, 72 
Glendower, Owen, 28 
Glynne, Sir John, 80 
Gloucester, Dukes of : Thomas of Woodstock, 

26, 27 ; Humphrey, 32 ; Richard III, 37, 38 
Gondomar, 70 
Gordon, Lord George, 96 
Grey, Lady Jane, 53, 54, 55, 58 
Grey, Lady Catherine, 60 
Griffin, son of Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, 6 
Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, 2, 3 

Hall, Edward, the Historian, 34 

Hamilton, James, third Marquis of, 77 

Harley, Robert, Earl of Oxford, 92 

Harrison, Colonel, 82 

Harvey, Sir George, 70 

Hastings, Lord, 36 

Helwys, Sir Gervase, 73 

Henry I, 3, 4 

Henry III, 4, 5, 7, 13, 15, 17 

Henry IV, 27, 28, 29, 31 

Henry V, 29, 3 1 

Henry VI, 32, 34 

Henry VII, 21, 23, 35, 37, 38, 53 

Henry VIII, n, 18, 21, 39, 41-9 

Henry, Prince of Wales, 70 

Hertford, Earl of, Edward Seymour, 49 

Holinshed, 55, 57 

Holies, Denzel, 77, 78 

Hopton, Sir Ralph, 80 

Howard, Lord Thomas, 45, 6 1 

Ireton, General, 80 

Isabel of Valois, Queen of Richard II, 29 

Isabella, Queen of Edward II, 8 

James I, 4, 18, 68, 70, 73 
James II, 83, 86 



James I of Scotland, 28 
James IV of Scotland, 40 
Jane Seymour, Queen, 54 
Jeanne a" Arc, 32 
Jeffreys, Judge, 86, 88 
Joan of the Tower, 7 
John, King, 4 

John II, King of France, 10 
John of Eltham, 78 
John of Gaunt, 27, 32 
John of Vienne, 10 

Katharine of Aragon, Qneen, 40, 43 
Katharine Howard, Queen, 47 
Katharine Parr, Queen, 48, 50 
Kilmarnock, Earl of, 95 
King's Keys, The, 22 
" King's Quhair," 29 

Lanfranc, Archbishop, 3 

Laud, Archbishop, 77, 78 

Legge, George, 14 

Leicester, Earl of, 66 

Lennox, Margaret Countess of. 20, 45, 61 

Lenthall, William, 82 

Leslie, John, Bishop of Ross, 62 

Lewes, Battle of, 6 

Lieutenant of the Tower, 21 

Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, 4, 1 3 

Londoun, Earl of, 77 

Louis VIII of France, 4 

Louis XI of France, 35 

Louis XII of France, 53 

Lovat, Simon Fraser, Lord, 96 

Love, Christopher, 81 

Major of the Tower, 21 

Mandeville, Geoffrey de, 20 

Mar, Earl of, John Erskine, 93 

Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI, 32, 
34, 35 

Margaret, Countess of Richmond. See Beau- 
fort 

Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, 40 

Marlborough, Duke of, 89, 92 

Mary, Queen, 54, 55 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 61 

Matilda, Wife of King Stephen, 4, 1 1 

Mohun, Lord, 89, 90 

Monmouth, Duke of, 85, 86, 87 

Montague, Lord, 46 

Montfort, Simon de, 6 

More, Sir Thomas, 37, 44 

Mortimer, Roger de, 8 

Neville, Edmund, 64 

Nithisdale, Earl of, 93 

Norman Conquest, 2 

Norfolk, Dukes of : Thomas Howard, third 

Duke, 43, 46, 49, 54 ; Thomas Howard, 

fourth Duke, 62 
Northampton, Earls of : William de Bohun, 

9 ; Henry Howard, 62 
Northumberland, Duke of, John Dudley, 49, 

5, 54 



INDEX 



103 



Northumberland, Earls of : Henry Percy, 
eighth Earl, 64 ; Henry Percy, ninth 
Earl, 71 

Gates, Titus, 83 

Oldcastle, Sir John. See Cobham, Lord 

Orleans, Charles, Duke of, 29 

Orleans, Louis, Duke of, 29 

Owen, Sir John, 80 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, 72 

Paul III, 44 

Pepys, 82 

Perkin Warbeck, 37, 40, 41 

Perrot, Sir John, 64 

Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester, 6 

Philip VI of France, 10 

Philip, King of Castile, 41 

Philip II of Spain, 41 

Philippa, Queen of Edward III, 9 

Pilgrimage of Grace, 45 

Poitiers, Battle of, 10 

Pole, Geoffrey, 46 

Pole, Reginald, Cardinal, 46 

Pym, John 77, 78 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 65, 70 

Reynardson, Sir Abraham, 80 

Richard I, 4, 13 

Richard II, 24-9 

Richard III, 37, 38 

Rivers, Lord, 35 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, 3 

Robert III, King of Scotland, 28 

Roman Invasion, i, 2 

Russell, Lord William, 85, 86 

Rye House Plot, 86 

St. Clement Danes, 8 

St. Katharine's by the Tower, Hospital of, n, 

21, 25 

Salisbury, Countess of, Margaret Pole, 46 
Sancroft, Archbishop, 87 
Say, Lord, 33 
Segrave, Sir Samuel, 8 
Selden, John, 77 
Seven Bishops, Trial of the, 87 
Seymour, Baron Thomas, 50 
Seymour, Lord William, 68 
Shaftesbury, Earl of, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 

first Earl, 83 

Shakespeare, 29, 32, 37, 66, 70 
Shrewsbury, Battle of, 28, 31 
Simnel, Lambert, 39 
Simon of Sudbury, 28 
Skelton, Bevil, 88 
Somerset, Dukes of : Edward Seymour, 49, 

50 ; William Seymour, 68 
Somerset, Robert Carr, Earl of, 73 
Southampton, Earls of : Henry Wriothesley, 

second Earl, 62 ; Henry Wriothesley, 

third Earl, 66, 67 

Stafford, Viscount of, William Howard, 85 
Stafford, Thomas, 59 
Stanley, Sir William, 41 
Stapledon, Walter, Bishop of Exeter, 8 



Starling, John, 25 

Stephen, King, 4, 1 1 

Stow, John, the Chronicler, 3, 7, n, 25 

Strafford, Earl of, Thomas Wentworth, 75, 77 

Suffolk, Dukes of : William de la Pole, 33 ; 

Charles Brandon, 53 

Suffolk, Earl of, Edmund de la Pole, 41, 42 
Surrey, Earl of, Henry Howard, 49 
Syndercombe, Miles, 81 

Talbot, Eleanor, 36 

Talbot, Sir Gilbert, 83 

Tenchebrai, Battle of, 3 

Tewkesbury, Battle of, 35 

Thistlewood, Arthur, 98 

Throckmorton, Sir John, 64 

Throckmorton, Sir Nicholas, 65 

Tooke, Home, 97 

Torture, Instruments of, 48, 63 

Tower of London : Armoury, 1 7, 98 ; Ballium 
Wall, 3 ; Barbican, 3 ; Beauchamp (or 
Cobham) Tower, 16, 18, 27, 33, 42, 54, 61, 
64, 90; Bell Tower, 16, 18, 42, 54, 72 ; 
Bloody Tower, n, 16, 18, 74, 78, 79, 90 ; 
Bowyer's Tower, 16, 35, 98 ; Brass Mount, 
14 ; Brick Tower, 16, 70 ; Broad Arrow 
Tower, 16 ; Byward Tower, 14, 98 ; 
Casements, 16 ; Constable Tower, 16 ; 
Council Chamber, 17; Cradle Tower, 14, 
72 ; Develin Tower, 14 ; Devereux 
(or Robert the Devil) Tower, 16, 19 ; 
Flint Tower, 16 ; Great Hall, 43, 
99; Inner Ward, 15, 16, 18 ; Jewel 
House, 3 ; Keep, see White Tower ; 
King's House, 20, 21, 24; Lantern 
Tower, 5, 16, 18 ; Little Ease, 16, 65, 71 ; 
Lion Gate, 4 ; Lion Tower, 7,13; Martin's 
Tower, 16, 19 ; Menagerie, 4 ; Middle 
Tower, 13, 15, 98 ; Moat, 10, 13, 14 ; Moat, 
13, 14, 15; North Bastion, 14; Outer 
Ward, 14, 15, 16 ; Parade, 18, 19; Privy 
Garden, 72 ; Royal Palace, 18 ; St. John's 
Chapel, 5, 17,28, 54, 99; St. Katharine's 
(or Iron) Gate, n ; St. Peter's Church, 3, 
5, 17, 18, 66, 76; St. Thomas' Tower, see 
Traitors' Gate ; Salt Tower, 16, 72, 98 ; 
Tower Green, 5, 19, 43 ; Traitors' Gate, 
5, ii, 13, 14, 15, 18, 45, 58, 66; Wake- 
field Tower, 16, 18, 34 ; Well Tower, 14 ; 
The White Tower, 3, 5, 13, 16, 18, 29, 42, 
82, 99 

Tower Hill, 19, 21, 25, 26, 41, 59, 62, 78 

Tower Wharf, 5 

Towton, Battle of, 34 

Tullibardine, Marquis of, 95 

Tyler, Wat, 25, 26 

Tyrrell, Sir James, 37, 41 

United Irishmen, 37 

Vane, Sir Harry, 82 
Vane, Sir Ralph, 50 
Victoria, Queen, 97 
Wade, Sir William, 72, 73 
Wakefield, Battle of, 23 
Wallace, William, 7 
Walpole, Horace, 90 
Walpole, Sir Robert, 95 



104 INDEX 

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 66 Wintoun, Earl of, George Seton, 93, 94 

Walworth, Sir William, 25 Wolsey, Cardinal, n, 43, 44, 46 

Warbeck, Perkin, 37, 40, 41 Wriothesley, Sir Thomas, 48 

Warwick, Earls of : Thomas de Beauchamp, Wren, Sir Christopher, 17, 90 

27 ; Richard de Beauchamp, 32 ; Wyatt, Sir Henry, 38, 39 

Richard Neville, 34; Edward, son of Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 55, 58 

Duke of Clarence, 39, 40 ; John Dudley, Wycliffe, John, 25, 31 

afterwards Duke of Northumberland, 51, Wyndham, Sir John, 41 

59 

Wellington, Duke of, 98 
Wilkes, John, 96 

William I, 2, 17 Yeomen of the Guard, 21, 22 

William II, 3, 18 York, Third Duke of, Richard, 33, 37 






Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works. From*, and London. 



THE PORTFOLIO MONOGRAPHS, No. 46 

With 4 Illuminations in Colours and Gold, and 33 other Illustrations. Sewed, 5/. 
nett, or in cloth, gilt top, fs. nett. 

THE CATHEDRAL 
BUILDERS IN ENGLAND 

By EDWARD S. PRIOR, M.A., F.S.A. 

Author of "A History of Gothic Art in England," etc. 

In this volume Mr. Prior treats of the Great English Mediaeval Cathedrals, 
with special reference to the men by whom they were designed, and the craftsmen 
by whom they were erected. He thus characterizes the successive periods of 
Cathedral building in England : 

1. Norman, Benedictine, " Romanesque," 

2. Angevin, Neomonastic, "Transitional to Gothic." 

3. Insular, Episcopal, " Early English." 

4. Continental, Regal, " The Summit of Gothic." 

5. English, Aristocratic, " Decorated." 

6. After the Black Death : Official, " Perpendicular." 

7. Fifteenth Century : Parochial and Trading, " Perpendicular." 

8. Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries : the Craftsman and the Architect. 

9. Nineteenth Century : the Restorer and Revivalist. 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

MINIATURES FROM ILLUMINATED MSS. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, PRINTED IN COLOURS. 
Christ in Glory. From a Missal of the Fourteenth Century. 

The Angels with the Seven Vials. From an Apocalypse of the Fourteenth Century. 
Bishop carrying the Sacrament. From a Leciionary of the Fifteenth Century. 
Group of Bishops. From a Psalter of the Fifteenth Century. 

OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 

Westminster Abbey. Confessor's Chapel. Lincoln Cathedral, from the East. HOLLAR. 

BOVCE. Salisbury Cathedral, the Chapter House. 

Westminster Abbey. N. Ambulatory. NASH. F. MACKENZIE. 

Canterbury Cathedral, from the S. HOLLAR. Salisbury Cathedral, from Cloisters. TURNER. 

Durham Cathedral, from the River. DANIELL. Exeter Cathedral, from the S.E. S. RAYNER. 

Durham Cathedral from the West. COTMAN. Ely Cathedral, the Octagon. GARLAND. 

Winchester Cathedral, N. Transept. BLORE. Gloucester Cathedral, Presbytery. J. HAROLD 

Norwich Cathedral, Nave. F. MACKENZIE. GIBBONS. 

Canterbury Cathedral. N. Aisle of Choir. Gloucester Cathedral, Cloisters. GARLAND. 

G. CATTERMOLE. York Minster, East End. E. MACKENZIE. 

Wells Cathedral, Arches under the Central Winchester Cathedral, West Front. GARLAND. 

Tower. GARLAND. York Minster, Choir. F. MACKENZIE. 

Wells Cathedral, N.W. Tower. J. H. GIBBONS. Sherborne Minster. CONSTABLE. 

Chichester Cathedral, S.E. View. GARLAND. St. George's Chapel, Windsor, from S. HOLLAR. 

Southwark Cathedral, Nave. DIBDEN. St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Interior of 

Salisbury Cathedral, Small Transept. F. Choir. HOLLAR. 

MACKENZIE. St. Paul's Cathedral, West Front. T. MALTON. 

York Minster, from the North, ED. BLORE. St. Paul's Cathedral, Interior of Choir. R. 

York Minster, North Transept. GARLAND. TREVITT. 

Lincoln Cathedral, from the West, DE WINT. Truro Cathedral, from the South-East. 
Lincoln Cathedral, the Chancel. GARLAND. 

" It is satisfactory to find the subject approached after a masterly and in many respects an original 
fashion. This book is brightened by various able reproductions of some of the best old engravings 
of England's minsters." Athenaum. 

" To not a few every page will be a delight." Church Times. 



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i 



Extra Crown Svo, with 33 Illustrations, and a photogravure vignette, in doth, gilt 

top, Js. 6d. nett. 

DISCOURSES 

DELIVERED TO 

Students of the Royal Academy 

BY 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, KT. 

With a General Introduction and Special Introduction to each 
Discourse, and Notes by 

ROGER E. FRY 

Author of Giovanni Bellini, etc., etc. 

Of the value of Reynolds' Discourses to art-students of the present day, Pro- 
fessor Clausen said, in one of his lectures delivered at the Royal Academy in 1904 : 
" There is no book that an artist can read so illuminating and helpful as Sir Joshua 
Reynolds' Discourses. . . . These admirable Discourses give with the utmost 
candour and clearness, with entire freedom from the sentimentality and gush 
which mars so much that is written on artistic subjects, the ripe conclusions of 
a great artist. We see the perfect workman the master craftsman, if I may say 
so putting his methods before us and laying bare his mind to us." 

The illustrations for the edition now presented have been selected with much 
thought and care by Mr. Roger Fry, who has also endeavoured in his Introduc- 
tions and Notes to bring to bear on the subject the results of modern criticism and 
research. % 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Design. Photo- GUIDO RENI. Samson Drinking from the 

gravure on Title Page. Jawbone of an Ass. 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Cymon and TINTORETTO. The Road to Calvary. 

Iphigenia. JACOPO BASSANO. II Riposo. 

ANNIBALE CARACCI. Youth Pouring a Liba- ANNIBALE CARACCI. The Flight into Egypt. 

tioru RUBENS. Landscape in Moonlight. 

LODOVICO CARACCI. Virgin and Child be- REMBRANDT. Man in Armour. 

tween St. Frances and St. Jerome. PARMEGIANINO. Madonna del Collo lungo. 

LORENZO BERNINI. David. FILIPPINO LIPPI. St. Paul Visiting St. Peter 
LE SUEUR. Descent from the Cross in Prison. 

TINTORETTO. The Last Supper RAPHAEL. Part of the Cartoon of St. Paul 
PAOLO VERONESE. The Marriage of St. Preaching at Athens. 

Catherine. TITIAN. St. Sebastian. 

CLAUDE. The Enchanted Castle. TITIAN. Detail from the Bacchus and 
CORREGGIO. St. Thomas and St. James the Ariadne. 

Less. CORREGGIO. Drawing for La Notte. 

GUIDO RENI. Pieta. RUBENS. Altar of St. Augustine's, Antwerp. 

SALVATOR ROSA. Cain and Abel. SALVATOR ROSA. Landscape. 

NICOLAS POUSSIN. Memoria della Morte. SEBASTIAN BOURDON. Return of the Ark. 

RAPHAEL. The Crucifixion. PELLEGRINO TIBALDI. Composition. 

GUERCINO. St. Bruno's Vision. MICHEL ANGELO. Study for a Crucifixion. 
CARAVAGGIO. Entombment. 
BAROCCIO. Holy Family. 

" No reprint could be welcomer." Pall Matt Gazette. 

" Rendered of great value by the critical introductions. . . . The interest of the plates is further 
considerably enhanced by Mr. Fry's brief appreciation of the various articles." Athenceum. 

LONDON : SEELEY & CO., LIMITED, 38 GREAT RUSSELL STREET. 



In large 4^?, price Five Guineas net^ in cloth 

THE 

ETCHINGS 

OF 

REMBRANDT 

BT 

P. G. HAMERTON 

WITH FIFTY FACSIMILES IN PHOTOGRAVURE 

and 
AN ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF REM BRANDTS ETCHINGS 

by 

CAMPBELL DODGSON 

Of the Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum. 

" I have been studying," said Mr. Hamerton in 1894, " the works of Rem- 
brandt's immediate predecessors and contemporaries in etching, with a view to 
understand his relative position more accurately. The result has only been to 
deepen my sense of the master's incomparable greatness, of his sterling originality, 
and especially of that wonderful quality in him by which he does not belong to the 
seventeenth century, but quite as much to the closing years of the nineteenth. 
In like manner, when it comes, he will be at home in the twentieth century, and 
in many another after it." 

Much has been done, since those words were written, to spread the great 
etcher's fame through the many reproductions of his plates that have been pub- 
lished. The art of reproduction, however, is a very modern one, and has only 
recently attained perfection. The plates here offered have been pronounced by 
experts to be superior to any hitherto produced. 

The selection has been made with the view of showing Rembrandt's work in 
its rich variety, and it includes several of his most important and largest subjects. 

Mr. Hamerton was specially qualified to write on the subject from his intimate 
practical knowledge of the technicalities of etching. His valuable essay was highly 
appreciated at the time of its appearance ; and Mr. Campbell Dodgson has now 
added to it a complete annotated catalogue of all Rembrandt's etchings, embody- 
ing the latest conclusions of the best critics. 

The edition is limited to 250 copies, of which only 225 are for sale. Each copy 

will be numbered. 

[For List of Plates see next -page. 



Continued from previous page.] 

LIST OF THE FIFTY PLATES 



1 REMBRANDT'S MOTHER, HEAD AND BUST 

2 REMBRANDT'S MOTHER SEATED AT A TABLE 

3 THE RAT KILLER 

4 THE (LARGE) RAISING OF LAZARUS 

5 ANGEL APPEARING TO THE SHEPHERDS 

6 REMBRANDT WITH RAISED SABRE 

7 JAN UYTENBOGAERT 

8 REMBRANDT AND His WIFE SASKIA 

9 BEARDED MAN WEARING A VELVET CAP 

WITH A JEWEL CLASP 

10 YOUNG MAN IN VELVET CAP 

11 THREE HEADS OF WOMEN 

12 STUDY OF SASKIA AS ST. CATHERINE. 

" THE LITTLE JEWISH BRIDE " 

13 JOSEPH TELLING His DREAMS 

14 DEATH APPEARING TO A WEDDED COUPLE 

15 UYTENBOGAERT, RECEIVER GENERAL. 

" THE GOLDWEIGHER " 

16 REMBRANDT, RICHLY DRESSED, LEANING 

ON A STONE SILL 

17 OLD MAN WITH A DIVIDED FUR CAP 

1 8 VIEW OF AMSTERDAM 

19 CORNELIS CLAESZ ANSLO, PREACHER 

20 THE ANGEL DEPARTING FROM THE 

FAMILY OF TOBIAS 

21 LANDSCAPE WITH WINDMILL 

22 READING WOMAN IN SPECTACLES 

23 MAN IN AN ARBOUR 

24 COTTAGE WITH A WHITE PALING 

25 THE Hoc 

26 THE THREE TREES 

27 CHRIST CARRIED TO THE TOMB 

28 ABRAHAM AND ISAAC 



29 Six's BRIDGE 

30 VIEW OF OMVAL 

31 EPHRAIM BONUS, JEWISH PHYSICIAN 

32 JAN Six, BURGOMASTER OF AMSTERDAM 

33 BEGGARS AT THE DOOR OF A HOUSE 

34 CHRIST HEALING THE SICK. " THE 

HUNDRED GUILDER PRINT " 

35 LANDSCAPE WITH A SQUARE TOWER 

36 LANDSCAPE WITH THREE GABLED COT- 

TAGES 

37 THE BLINDNESS OF TOBIT 

38 THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. A NIGHT 

PIECE 

39 CLEMENT DE JONGHE, PRINTSELLER AND 

ARTIST 

40 CHRIST PREACHING 

41 DR. FAUSTUS IN HIS STUDY WATCHING A 

MAGIC Disc 

42 TITUS, REMBRANDT'S SON 

43 PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE, IN THE 

DARK MANNER 

44 CHRIST TAKEN DOWN FROM THE CROSS, 

BY TORCHLIGHT 

45 CHRIST AT EMMAUS 

46 ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE 

47 THOMAS JACOBSZ HAARING, AUCTIONEER. 

" THE YOUNG HAARING " 

48 PORTRAIT OF ARNOLD THOLINX 

49 JAN LUTMA (THE ELDER), GOLDSMITH 

AND SCULPTOR 

50 THE PHOZNIX, OR THE STATUE OVER- 

THROWN. " LE TOMBEAU ALLEGORI- 
QUE" 



LONDON : SEELEY & CO., LIMITED, 38 GREAT RUSSELL STREET. 







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